An international survey of medical ethics curricula in Asia.
SETTING: Medical ethics education has become common, and the integrated ethics curriculum has been recommended in Western countries. It should be questioned whether there is one, universal method of teaching ethics applicable worldwide to medical schools, especially those in non-Western developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the medical ethics curricula at Asian medical schools. DESIGN: Mailed survey of 206 medical schools in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Australia and New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 100 medical schools responded, a response rate of 49%, ranging from 23%-100% by country. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The degree of integration of the ethics programme into the formal medical curriculum was measured by lecture time; whether compulsory or elective; whether separate courses or unit of other courses; number of courses; schedule; total length, and diversity of teachers' specialties. RESULTS: A total of 89 medical schools (89%) reported offering some courses in which ethical topics were taught. Separate medical ethics courses were mostly offered in all countries, and the structure of vertical integration was divided into four patterns. Most deans reported that physicians' obligations and patients' rights were the most important topics for their students. However, the evaluation was diverse for more concrete topics. CONCLUSION: Offering formal medical ethics education is a widespread feature of medical curricula throughout the study area. However, the kinds of programmes, especially with regard to integration into clinical teaching, were greatly diverse. (+info)
Clinical ethics revisited.
A decade ago, we reviewed the field of clinical ethics; assessed its progress in research, education, and ethics committees and consultation; and made predictions about the future of the field. In this article, we revisit clinical ethics to examine our earlier observations, highlight key developments, and discuss remaining challenges for clinical ethics, including the need to develop a global perspective on clinical ethics problems. (+info)
The Council of Europe's first Symposium on Bioethics: Strasbourg, Dec 5-7 1989.
This symposium discussed bioethics teaching, research and documentation and also research ethics committees. An international convention for the protection of the integrity of the human body was called for, as was a new European Committee on Ethics. 'The genetic impact' was a major preoccupation of the symposium. (+info)
Arguments at cross-purposes: moral epistemology and medical ethics.
Different beliefs about the nature and justification of bioethics may reflect different assumptions in moral epistemology. Two alternative views (put forward by David Seedhouse and Michael H Kottow) are analysed and some speculative conclusions formed. The foundational questions raised here are by no means settled and deserve further attention. (+info)
The communication of information about older people between health and social care practitioners.
AIM: to provide an evidence base for strategies, and effectiveness of the transfer of patient information between hospital and community for older people with physical illness. DESIGN: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature. SEARCH STRATEGY: literature from medical, health-related and social science databases as well as work in progress from national databases, the Internet, British PhD theses and other grey literature and policy documents. SELECTION CRITERIA: literature relating to similar healthcare systems published between January 1994 and June 2000 on hospital discharge planning. Empirical studies from peer reviewed sources; theoretical papers from non-peer reviewed sources; research papers from non-peer reviewed sources and professional documents. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: extracted data from empirical studies under the headings of location, sector, research questions and study design and duration. We made structured summaries of all other data sources and used them to supply context and background. We categorized literature and analysed it in terms of method and analysis, quality and strength of evidence and its relevance to the research questions. We synthesized the results and presented them in terms of answers to our research questions. RESULTS: a database of 373 potentially relevant studies and of these, 53 were accepted for further analysis. Thirty-one were empirical studies, most of which were qualitative or a combination of qualitative and quantitative in design. The most effective strategy for transferring information is the appointment of a 'key worker', who can provide a point of contact for workers from hospital and community. Nevertheless, problems have arisen because both settings are under pressure and pursuing different goals. Neither setting is fully aware of the needs, limitations and pressures of the other. CONCLUSION: raised awareness and the establishment of common goals are the first steps needed to bridge the divide between health and social care staff in hospital and the community. (+info)
Don't cry for us Argentinians: two decades of teaching medical humanities.
Medical humanities--history, literature, anthropology, ethics and fine arts applied to medicine--play an important role in medical education. For more than 20 years an effort has been made to obtain an academic identity for such a multidisciplinary approach. A distinction between humanitarianism and humanism is attempted here, the former being associated with medical care and the latter with medical education. In order more precisely to define the relationship between the arts and medicine, an alternative term "medical kalology", as-yet-unsanctioned, coined after the rules of medical terminology, is proposed. The Department of Medical Humanities in the School of Medicine, National University La Plata, submits the following apologia: Don't cry for us Argentinians, since the teaching of medical humanities has helped our doctors to function more truly humanistically during the past two decades, as we intend to continue with this calling in the future. (+info)
Society of pediatric psychology presidential address: opportunities for health promotion in primary care.
OBJECTIVE: To set an agenda for health promotion in primary care settings. METHODS: This is a review of the scientific bases of child development as applied to pediatric psychology and health promotion. RESULTS: Primary care is an ideal setting for health promotion because there is a "hidden morbidity" of children with unrecognized and untreated behavioral and developmental problems that, if unresolved, may lead to psychiatric and physical disorders and increased use of the health care system. Although pediatric psychologists endorse the importance of health promotion, there are few examples in the literature involving pediatric psychologists. Recommendations are provided for a proactive agenda for health promotion programs involving pediatric psychologists in primary care. CONCLUSIONS: With conceptual homes in clinical and developmental psychology, expertise in theories of clinical and child development, scientific methods, and collaborative relationships with pediatricians, pediatric psychologists are in a unique position to develop and evaluate health promotion programs for use in primary care. (+info)