(1/435) Trimers of the fibronectin cell adhesion domain localize to actin filament bundles and undergo rearward translocation.
Previous studies have shown that small beads coated with FN7-10, a four-domain cell adhesion fragment of fibronectin, bind to cell surfaces and translocate rearward. Here we investigate whether soluble constructs containing two to five FN7-10 units might be sufficient for activity. We have produced a monomer, three forms of dimers, a trimer and a pentamer of FN7-10, on the end of spacer arms. These oligomers could bind small clusters of up to five integrins. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the trimer and pentamer bound strongly to the cell surface, and within 5 minutes were prominently localized to actin fiber bundles. Monomers and dimers showed only diffuse localization. Beads coated with a low concentration (probably one complex per bead) of trimer or pentamer showed prolonged binding and rearward translocation, presumably with the translocating actin cytskeleton. Beads containing monomer or dimer showed only brief binding and diffusive movements. We conclude that clusters of three integrin-binding ligands are necessary and sufficient for coupling to and translocating with the actin cytoskeleton. (+info)
(2/435) Suppression of integrin activation by activated Ras or Raf does not correlate with bulk activation of ERK MAP kinase.
The rapid modulation of ligand-binding affinity ("activation") is a central property of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors. The Ras family of small GTP-binding proteins and their downstream effectors are key players in regulating integrin activation. H-Ras can suppress integrin activation in fibroblasts via its downstream effector kinase, Raf-1. In contrast, to H-Ras, a closely related small GTP-binding protein R-Ras has the opposite activity, and promotes integrin activation. To gain insight into the regulation of integrin activation by Ras GTPases, we created a series of H-Ras/R-Ras chimeras. We found that a 35-amino acid stretch of H-Ras was required for full suppressive activity. Furthermore, the suppressive chimeras were weak activators of the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway, suggesting that the suppression of integrin activation may be independent of the activation of the bulk of ERK MAP kinase. Additional data demonstrating that the ability of H-Ras or Raf-1 to suppress integrin activation was unaffected by inhibition of bulk ERK1/2 MAP kinase activation supported this hypothesis. Thus, the suppression of integrin activation is a Raf kinase induced regulatory event that can be mediated independently of bulk activation of the ERK MAP-kinase pathway. (+info)
(3/435) alpha4beta1 integrin regulates lamellipodia protrusion via a focal complex/focal adhesion-independent mechanism.
alpha4beta1 integrin plays an important role in cell migration. We show that when ectopically expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, alpha4beta1 is sufficient and required for promoting protrusion of broad lamellipodia in response to scratch-wounding, whereas alpha5beta1 does not have this effect. By time-lapse microscopy of cells expressing an alpha4/green fluorescent protein fusion protein, we show that alpha4beta1 forms transient puncta at the leading edge of cells that begin to protrude lamellipodia in response to scratch-wounding. The cells expressing a mutant alpha4/green fluorescent protein that binds paxillin at a reduced level had a faster response to scratch-wounding, forming alpha4-positive puncta and protruding lamellipodia much earlier. While enhancing lamellipodia protrusion, this mutation reduces random motility of the cells in Transwell assays, indicating that lamellipodia protrusion and random motility are distinct types of motile activities that are differentially regulated by interactions between alpha4beta1 and paxillin. Finally, we show that, at the leading edge, alpha4-positive puncta and paxillin-positive focal complexes/adhesions do not colocalize, but alpha4beta1 and paxillin colocalize partially in ruffles. These findings provide evidence for a specific role of alpha4beta1 in lamellipodia protrusion that is distinct from the motility-promoting functions of alpha5beta1 and other integrins that mediate cell adhesion and signaling events through focal complexes and focal adhesions. (+info)
(4/435) Fibronectin fragments and blocking antibodies to alpha2beta1 and alpha5beta1 integrins stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and increase collagenase 3 (matrix metalloproteinase 13) production by human articular chondrocytes.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if integrin-mediated signaling results in activation of chondrocyte mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases that lead to increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13; collagenase 3), a potent mediator of cartilage matrix degradation. METHODS: Human articular chondrocytes isolated from normal ankle and knee cartilage obtained from tissue donors were cultured in monolayers. The cells were treated with a 120-kd fibronectin fragment (FN-f) that binds the alpha5beta1 integrin or with antibodies to specific integrin receptors. Activation of MAP kinases was determined by immunoblotting with phosphospecific antibodies. MMP production was measured by gelatin zymography, and MMP-13 production and activation were determined by immunoblotting and by a fluorogenic peptide assay. RESULTS: Human articular chondrocytes were found to respond to the 120-kd FN-f and to adhesion-blocking antibodies to the alpha2beta1 and alpha5beta1 integrins with increased phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1)/ERK2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAP kinases. Intact FN and integrin-blocking antibodies to alpha1, alpha3, and alphaVbeta3 and a nonblocking alpha5 antibody had no effect. After MAP kinase activation, increased phosphorylation of c-Jun and the nuclear factor kappaB inhibitor was noted, followed by increased pro- and activated MMP-13 in the conditioned media. Inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, p38, and JNK were each able to inhibit increased MMP-13 production, while the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) protein did not. However, the IL-1Ra partially inhibited FN-f-induced activation of MMP-13. CONCLUSION: Integrin-mediated MAP kinase signaling stimulated by FN-f is associated with increased production and release of pro- and active MMP-13. Autocrine production of IL-1 appears to result in additional MMP-13 activation. These processes may play a key role in feedback loops responsible for progressive cartilage degradation in arthritis. (+info)
(5/435) Endostatin associates with integrin alpha5beta1 and caveolin-1, and activates Src via a tyrosyl phosphatase-dependent pathway in human endothelial cells.
Endostatin, the COOH-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII, is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. To understand the mechanisms behind endostatin action, we analyzed the plasma membrane- extracellular matrix interactions of recombinant human endostatin in cultured microvascular endothelial cells. We observed that endostatin induced rapid clustering of alpha5beta1 integrin associated with actin stress fibers and its concomitant colocalization with the membrane anchor protein caveolin-1. Furthermore, endostatin could be coimmunoprecipitated with alpha5beta1 and caveolin-1 from endothelial cell extracts. Endostatin treatment induced phosphatase-dependent activation of caveolin-associated Src family kinases. The disassembly of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions by endostatin was found to occur via activation of Src and in a tyrosyl phosphatase-dependent manner. The endostatin-treated cells void of the focal adhesions had impaired ability to deposit fibronectin into their extracellular matrices and were unable to migrate in response to basic fibroblast growth factor in a wounding experiment. These results indicate that recombinant endostatin interacts with alpha5beta1 integrin and caveolin-1 at the endothelial cell surface. In addition, the antimigratory effect of endostatin involves phosphatase-dependent Src activation and impaired cell-matrix interactions. (+info)
(6/435) Inhibition of endothelial cell survival and angiogenesis by protein kinase A.
Receptors for the provisional ECM are important regulators of angiogenesis. One of these receptors, integrin alpha5beta1, plays a critical role in tumor- and growth factor-induced angiogenesis, because antagonists of this integrin potently inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth. Here we show that the integrin alpha5beta1 promotes endothelial cell survival during angiogenesis in vivo by suppressing the activity of protein kinase A (PKA). Antagonists of integrin alpha5beta1 activate PKA, which then leads to the activation of caspase-8 and induction of apoptosis. Direct activation of PKA by cAMP or by expression of the PKA catalytic subunit also induces endothelial cell apoptosis, resulting in angiogenesis inhibition in vivo. Our studies indicate that ligation of integrin alpha5beta1 during angiogenesis suppresses an apoptotic program that is dependent on PKA. These studies also indicate that induction of endothelial cell apoptosis in vivo by genetic or pharmacological activation of PKA may be a useful strategy to inhibit angiogenesis. (+info)
(7/435) Synergistic activity of the ninth and tenth FIII domains of human fibronectin depends upon structural stability.
The ninth and tenth FIII domains (FIII9-10) of human fibronectin act in synergy to promote cell adhesion via the interaction with integrin receptors. Here we describe the functional and structural properties of a set of recombinant FIII9-10 mutants containing various alanine substitutions within the key synergistic site, DRVPHSRN in FIII9, either alone or in combination with another substitution (Leu(1408) to Pro), on the opposite face of FIII9, that increases stability and the functional capacity of FIII9-10. We show that the introduction of mutations into the synergistic sequence of FIII9-10 has a negative effect on the adhesion of baby hamster kidney fibroblasts and results in reduced ability of these ligands to recognize integrin alpha(5)beta(1). Conformational stability of the FIII9 domain in the synergy site mutants is likewise reduced in comparison with native FIII9. The Leu(1408) to Pro substitution in mutant FIII9-10 proteins carrying substitutions in the synergy site results in a substantial recovery of the adhesive activity of the mutants and affinity to alpha(5)beta(1). In keeping with the enhancement of functional activity, the Leu(1408) to Pro substitution in the FIII9-10 synergy site mutants also causes a significant increase in conformational stability of FIII9. These observations imply a strong positive correlation between the biological activity and conformational stability of the assessed FIII9-10 mutants and suggest that a Leu(1408) to Pro substitution restores the biological activity of the mutants via their ability to restore their conformational stability. We conclude that domain stability may be a major determinant of the synergistic potential of FIII9. Our data underscore the value of using more than one approach in such structure-function studies and the requirement for validating the global structural integrity of protein ligands in which sequences that disrupt function have been perturbed. (+info)
(8/435) A highly sensitive strategy for SCID-repopulating cell assay by direct injection of primitive human hematopoietic cells into NOD/SCID mice bone marrow.
To measure the ability of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), the SCID-repopulating cell (SRC) assay has been widely used. Conventionally, human HSCs are transplanted into a nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mouse via a tail vein. However, those cells must go through various obstacles until they reach the mouse marrow environment, which could explain the generally low homing efficiency in this system. Thus, the capability of HSCs may not be studied accurately by this intravenous transplantation method. In our attempt to reveal actual SRC potential, ie, self-renewal and multilineage differentiation in recipient bone marrow, we introduced cells into mouse marrow directly (intrabone marrow [iBM]) to minimize the effect of factors that may interfere with the homing of HSCs and compared the results obtained by intravenous and iBM methods. When cord blood CD34(+)CD38(-) cells were transplanted in NOD/SCID mice by iBM, a 15-fold higher frequency of SRC, 1 in 44 CD34(+)CD38(-) cells, was achieved compared with 1 in 660 by the intravenous method. Furthermore, the iBM transplant showed high levels of engraftment in the secondary transplantation. Pretreatment of CD34(+) cells with antibodies that block either very late antigen 4 (VLA-4) or VLA-5 reduced engraftment partially, whereas blockage of both molecules resulted in complete inhibition of engraftment, which suggests that VLA-4 and VLA-5 are involved in different processes in engraftment or have complementary roles. Our results indicate that the iBM injection strategy is a more sensitive and direct way to measure the capability of human SRCs and is useful to investigate the interaction of HSCs and marrow environment in vivo. (+info)