(1/1730) Phosphotyrosine binding domains of Shc and insulin receptor substrate 1 recognize the NPXpY motif in a thermodynamically distinct manner.

Phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains of the adaptor protein Shc and insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) interact with a distinct set of activated and tyrosine-phosphorylated cytokine and growth factor receptors and play important roles in mediating mitogenic signal transduction. By using the technique of isothermal titration calorimetry, we have studied the thermodynamics of binding of the Shc and IRS-1 PTB domains to tyrosine-phosphorylated NPXY-containing peptides derived from known receptor binding sites. The results showed that relative contributions of enthalpy and entropy to the free energy of binding are dependent on specific phosphopeptides. Binding of the Shc PTB domain to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides from TrkA, epidermal growth factor, ErbB3, and insulin receptors is achieved via an overall entropy-driven reaction. On the other hand, recognition of the phosphopeptides of insulin and interleukin-4 receptors by the IRS-1 PTB domain is predominantly an enthalpy-driven process. Mutagenesis and amino acid substitution experiments showed that in addition to the tyrosine-phosphorylated NPXY motif, the PTB domains of Shc and IRS-1 prefer a large hydrophobic residue at pY-5 and a small hydrophobic residue at pY-1, respectively (where pY is phosphotyrosine). These results agree with the calculated solvent accessibility of these two key peptide residues in the PTB domain/peptide structures and support the notion that the PTB domains of Shc and IRS-1 employ functionally distinct mechanisms to recognize tyrosine-phosphorylated receptors.  (+info)

(2/1730) Increased insulin sensitivity and obesity resistance in mice lacking the protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B gene.

Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B) has been implicated in the negative regulation of insulin signaling. Disruption of the mouse homolog of the gene encoding PTP-1B yielded healthy mice that, in the fed state, had blood glucose concentrations that were slightly lower and concentrations of circulating insulin that were one-half those of their PTP-1B+/+ littermates. The enhanced insulin sensitivity of the PTP-1B-/- mice was also evident in glucose and insulin tolerance tests. The PTP-1B-/- mice showed increased phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in liver and muscle tissue after insulin injection in comparison to PTP-1B+/+ mice. On a high-fat diet, the PTP-1B-/- and PTP-1B+/- mice were resistant to weight gain and remained insulin sensitive, whereas the PTP-1B+/+ mice rapidly gained weight and became insulin resistant. These results demonstrate that PTP-1B has a major role in modulating both insulin sensitivity and fuel metabolism, thereby establishing it as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity.  (+info)

(3/1730) Cross-regulation of C/EBP alpha and PPAR gamma controls the transcriptional pathway of adipogenesis and insulin sensitivity.

Mice deficient in C/EBP alpha have defective development of adipose tissue, but the precise role of C/EBP alpha has not been defined. Fibroblasts from C/EBP alpha(-/-) mice undergo adipose differentiation through expression and activation of PPAR gamma, though several clear defects are apparent. C/EBP alpha-deficient adipocytes accumulates less lipid, and they do not induce endogenous PPAR gamma, indicating that cross-regulation between C/EBP alpha and PPAR gamma is important in maintaining the differentiated state. The cells also show a complete absence of insulin-stimulated glucose transport, secondary to reduced gene expression and tyrosine phosphorylation for the insulin receptor and IRS-1. These results define multiple roles for C/EBP alpha in adipogenesis and show that cross-regulation between PPAR gamma and C/EBP alpha is a key component of the transcriptional control of this cell lineage.  (+info)

(4/1730) Exclusion of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2) as a major locus for early-onset autosomal dominant type 2 diabetes.

We investigated whether variability at the insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 locus plays a role in the etiology of early-onset autosomal dominant type 2 diabetes. By means of radiation hybrid mapping, we placed the human IRS-2 gene on 13q at 8.6 cRays from SHGC-37358. Linkage between diabetes and two polymorphic markers located in this region (D13S285 and D13S1295) was then evaluated in 29 families with early-onset autosomal dominant type 2 diabetes. Included were 220 individuals with diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, or gestational diabetes (mean age at diabetes diagnosis 36 +/- 17 years) and 146 nondiabetic subjects. Overall, strongly negative logarithm of odds (LOD) scores for linkage with diabetes were obtained by multipoint parametric analysis (LOD score -45.4 at D13S285 and -40.9 at D13S1295). No significant evidence of linkage was obtained under the hypothesis of heterogeneity or by nonparametric methods. Fourteen pedigrees for which linkage could not be excluded (LOD score > -2.0) were screened for mutations in the IRS-2 coding region by dideoxy fingerprinting. However, no mutations segregating with diabetes could be detected in these families. These data indicate that IRS-2 is not a major gene for early-onset autosomal dominant type 2 diabetes, although a role of mutations in the promoter region cannot be excluded at this time.  (+info)

(5/1730) Muscle fiber type-specific defects in insulin signal transduction to glucose transport in diabetic GK rats.

To determine whether defects in the insulin signal transduction pathway to glucose transport occur in a muscle fiber type-specific manner, post-receptor insulin-signaling events were assessed in oxidative (soleus) and glycolytic (extensor digitorum longus [EDL]) skeletal muscle from Wistar or diabetic GK rats. In soleus muscle from GK rats, maximal insulin-stimulated (120 nmol/l) glucose transport was significantly decreased, compared with that of Wistar rats. In EDL muscle from GK rats, maximal insulin-stimulated glucose transport was normal, while the submaximal response was reduced compared with that of Wistar rats. We next treated diabetic GK rats with phlorizin for 4 weeks to determine whether restoration of glycemia would lead to improved insulin signal transduction. Phlorizin treatment of GK rats resulted in full restoration of insulin-stimulated glucose transport in soleus and EDL muscle. In soleus muscle from GK rats, submaximal and maximal insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity were markedly reduced, compared with that of Wistar rats, but only submaximal insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase was restored after phlorizin treatment. In EDL muscle, insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and IRS-1-associated PI-3 kinase were not altered between GK and Wistar rats. Maximal insulin-stimulated Akt (protein kinase B) kinase activity is decreased in soleus muscle from GK rats and restored upon normalization of glycemia (Krook et al., Diabetes 46:2100-2114, 1997). Here, we show that in EDL muscle from GK rats, maximal insulin-stimulated Akt kinase activity is also impaired and restored to Wistar rat levels after phlorizin treatment. In conclusion, functional defects in IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase in skeletal muscle from diabetic GK rats are fiber-type-specific, with alterations observed in oxidative, but not glycolytic, muscle. Furthermore, regardless of muscle fiber type, downstream steps to PI 3-kinase (i.e., Akt and glucose transport) are sensitive to changes in the level of glycemia.  (+info)

(6/1730) Concerted activity of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 and focal adhesion kinase in regulation of cell motility.

The coordinated interplay of substrate adhesion and deadhesion is necessary for cell motility. Using MCF-7 cells, we found that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) induces the adhesion of MCF-7 to vitronectin and collagen in a dose- and time-dependent manner, suggesting that IGF-I triggers the activation of different integrins. On the other hand, IGF-I promotes the association of insulin receptor substrate 1 with the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, resulting in FAK and paxillin dephosphorylation. Abrogation of SHP-2 catalytic activity with a dominant-negative mutant (SHP2-C>S) abolishes IGF-I-induced FAK dephosphorylation, and cells expressing SHP2-C>S show reduced IGF-I-stimulated chemotaxis compared with either mock- or SHP-2 wild-type-transfected cells. This impairment of cell migration is recovered by reintroduction of a catalytically active SHP-2. Interestingly, SHP-2-C>S cells show a larger number of focal adhesion contacts than wild-type cells, suggesting that SHP-2 activity participates in the integrin deactivation process. Although SHP-2 regulates mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD-98059 has only a marginal effect on MCF-7 cell migration. The role of SHP-2 as a general regulator of cell chemotaxis induced by other chemotactic agents and integrins is discussed.  (+info)

(7/1730) Modulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation by an Akt/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway.

Serine/threonine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) has been implicated as a negative regulator of insulin signaling. Prior studies have indicated that this negative regulation by protein kinase C involves the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphorylation of serine 612 in IRS-1. In the present studies, the negative regulation by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was compared with that induced by endothelin-1, an activator of protein kinase C. In contrast to endothelin-1, the inhibitory effects of PDGF did not require mitogen-activated protein kinase or the phosphorylation of serine 612. Instead, three other serines in the phosphorylation domain of IRS-1 (serines 632, 662, and 731) were required for the negative regulation by PDGF. In addition, the PDGF-activated serine/threonine kinase called Akt was found to inhibit insulin signaling. Moreover, this inhibition required the same IRS-1 serine residues as the inhibition by PDGF. Finally, the negative regulatory effects of PDGF and Akt were inhibited by rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), one of the downstream targets of Akt. These studies implicate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt kinase cascade as an additional negative regulatory pathway for the insulin signaling cascade.  (+info)

(8/1730) Pertussis toxin-sensitive and insensitive intracellular signalling pathways in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells stimulated by insulin converge with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase upstream of the Ras mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade.

We have previously reported that pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive GTP binding protein (G-protein) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) are involved in adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells induced by insulin/dexamethasone/methylisobutyl xanthine. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PTX on the tyrosine kinase cascade stimulated by insulin acting through insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells. A high level of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was sustained for up to 4 h after insulin treatment, and mobility shifted and tyrosine phosphorylated MAPK was also detected. MAPK kinase activity measured by the incorporation of 32P into kinase-negative recombinant MAPK was enhanced by insulin treatment. We previously discovered that insulin activates Ras and that this is mediated by wortmannin-sensitive PI 3-K. Tyrosine-phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Shc also occurred in response to insulin. Subsequently, we investigated the effects of PTX on the activation of these proteins by insulin. Interestingly, treating 3T3-L1 cells with PTX attenuates the activation by insulin of both the Ras-MAPK cascade and PI 3-K. In contrast, neither tyrosine-phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Shc nor the interaction between IRS-1 and PI 3-K is sensitive to PTX. However, activation of the Ras-MAPK cascade and tyrosine-phosphorylation of Shc by epidermal growth factor are insensitive to PTX. These results indicate that there is another pathway which regulates PI 3-K and Ras-MAPK, independent of the pathway mediated by IGF-I receptor kinase. These findings suggest that in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, PTX-sensitive G-proteins cross-talk with the Ras-MAPK pathway via PI 3-K by insulin acting via IGF-I receptors.  (+info)