Evaluation of the chronic toxicity and oncogenicity of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET).
Chronic toxicity and/or oncogenicity studies were conducted in rats, mice, and dogs with the insect repellent DEET. DEET was mixed in the diet and administered to CD rats for two years at concentrations that corresponded to dosage levels of 10, 30 or 100 mg/kg/day for males and 30, 100, or 400 mg/kg/day for females; to CD-1 mice for 18 months at dosage levels of 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day; and to dogs for one year, via gelatin capsules, at dosage levels of 30, 100, or 400 mg/kg/day. In the rodent studies, each group consisted of 60 animals of each sex, and two concurrent independent control groups, each containing 60 animals/sex were included in each study. Each group in the dog study consisted of four male and four female dogs and one control group was included in the study. Treatment-related effects were observed at the highest dose level in all three studies. For rats, the effects included decreases in body weight and food consumption and an increase in serum cholesterol in females only. In mice, the effects observed were decreases in body weight and food consumption in both sexes. The effects observed in dogs included increased incidences of emesis and ptyalism, and levels of transient reduction in hemoglobin and hematocrit, increased alkaline phosphatase (males only), decreased cholesterol, and increased potassium. One male dog in the high-dose group also exhibited ataxia, tremors, abnormal head movements, and/or convulsions on several occasions during the study. The highest no-observed-effect levels (NO-ELs) for rats, mice and dogs were determined to be 100, 500, and 100 mg/kg/day, respectively. No specific target organ toxicity or oncogenicity was observed in any of the studies. (+info)
Lyme disease: recognition, management, and prevention in the primary care setting.
This activity is designed for practitioners who see patients with tick bites, Lyme disease, or suspected Lyme disease in their practice, whether or not the practitioner is in an endemic area for Lyme disease. GOAL: To help primary care practitioners recognize and treat Lyme disease and provide preventive counseling. OBJECTIVES: 1. Be familiar with the terminology used for the causative agent of Lyme disease, its tick vector and reservoirs in nature, and where the disease is endemic. 2. Know the features of the common, characteristic clinical forms of Lyme disease. 3. Appreciate the uses and limitations of laboratory testing for this infection. 4. Understand early antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease, the management of a tick bite, and preventive measures. (+info)
A new strategy for treating nets. Part 1: formulation and dosage.
The conventional dosages of pyrethroid insecticides on mosquito nets assume that nets will be retreated at 6-12 month intervals. However, dosage should be related to washing of nets; if nets are only washed once or twice a year, their dosage requirements will be different to those which are washed fortnightly. A 'low-dose, frequent-wash' retreatment system might be technically more appropriate and more affordable where nets are washed frequently, as they are in Dar es Salaam. Moreover, for use as a domestic insecticide, water-based formulations of pyrethroid are preferable to the more commonly used emulsifiable concentrates (ECs). This paper reports laboratory evaluations of three formulations (ECs, Flowable, CS) of three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, permethrin). Insecticidal activity was tested using serial bioassays at a range of dosages using Anopheles gambiae. The water-based formulations were no less effective than the ECs, even at the lowest dosages. Nets treated with 3 mg/m2 and then repeatedly washed and retreated after each wash with either 3 mg/m2 or 1 mg/m2 were subjected to gas chromatography analysis. This showed that the amounts of pyrethroid in the nets accumulated rapidly over the first few wash-retreatment cycles and then remained fairly stable over subsequent cycles. These nets gave consistently high bioassay mortalities throughout the experiment, while the mortality declined rapidly after several washes with the nets that were treated at 3 mg/m2 but not retreated. Experimental huts were used to compare the effectiveness of these 2 net retreatment regimes and nets which were not retreated. All nets caused high mortality rates amongst Anopheles females, but had negligible effects on culicines; either in killing them or in preventing feeding. Therefore use of a high 'loading' dose for initial treatment with lower 'maintenance' doses for retreatment may be preferable to ensure that net users promptly perceive the benefits of the insecticide against culicines. (+info)
Gender-related efficacy difference to an extended duration formulation of topical N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET).
A clinical trial (n = 120, 60 males and 60 females) was conducted to assess the efficacy of an extended duration tropical insect/arthropod repellent (EDTIAR) topical formulation of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). The amount of EDTIAR (mean +/- confidence interval), applied by participants in accordance with label directions, was not significantly different between females (3.66 +/- 0.32 mg/cm2) and males (3.45 +/- 0.33 mg/cm2). There also was no significant difference in the number of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes biting the control arm of females or males at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 hr. While gender had no effect on feeding, the time of day did effect mosquito feeding with fewer mosquitoes feeding in the afternoon than in the morning or evening. The percent protective efficacy at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 hr was 100.0, 99.3, 92.8, 79.7 and 66.3 for females, and 100.0, 100.0, 97.6, 91.9, and 77.5 for males. These data are inconsistent with the EDTIAR label claim that the repellent provides 95% or greater protection against mosquitoes for 12 hr or more under normal use conditions. The results of a multivariate regression analysis indicated that 1) protection decreased linearly as time after application of repellent increased (P < 0.001), 2) individuals who applied higher doses of repellent were better protected against mosquito bites (P < 0.001), 3) females experienced significantly less protection over time than did males (P = 0.005), and 4) the estradiol concentration in the blood had no effect on efficacy of the repellent (P = 0.110). (+info)
Short report: prevention of Schistosoma mansoni infections in mice by the insect repellents AI3-37220 and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide.
N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) has recently been reported to kill cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni in vitro. In addition, it blocked cercarial entry into mouse tail skin. We confirmed these results and compared the efficacy of DEET to a second insect repellent, 1-(3-Cyclohexen-1-yl-carbonyl)-2-methylpiperidine (AI3-37220), in preventing S. mansoni infections in mice. Both AI3-37220 and DEET conferred 100% protection against S. mansoni infection via percutaneous exposure to cercariae. (+info)
Anticonvulsant-resistant seizures following pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET).
An acute toxic interaction has been described, in which sublethal doses of pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), when administered concomitantly, resulted in seizures and lethality. To investigate the possible relationships between seizures and lethality and the role of the cholinergic system in this interaction, PB (5 mg/kg), DEET (200 mg/kg) or PB (3 mg/kg) + DEET (200 mg/kg) were administered i.p. to male ICR mice, alone or following i.p. pretreatment, with one of several anticonvulsant agents: diazepam, 10 mg/kg; fosphenytoin, 40 mg/kg; phenobarbital, 45 mg/kg; or dextrophan, 25 mg/kg), or the anticholinergic agents, atropine (5 mg/kg), atropine methyl nitrate (2.7 mg/kg), or mecamylamine (2.5 mg/kg). The anticonvulsants selected for this study act through different mechanisms to reduce seizures. None of the anticonvulsants was able to reduce the incidence of seizures following treatment with PB, DEET or PB + DEET. Only diazepam delayed the onset of seizures. Fosphenytoin or diazepam significantly prolonged the time to lethality following PB, but only fosphenytoin reduced the incidence of PB-induced lethality. Diazepam or phenobarbital significantly prolonged the time to lethality following PB + DEET. Both atropine and atropine methyl nitrate protected against PB and PB + DEET-induced lethality and PB-induced seizures. Neither agent blocked seizures resulting from DEET or PB + DEET. Mecamylamine reduced seizures and lethality in PB-treated mice, but not in mice treated with DEET or PB + DEET. The results indicate that seizure activity is not a causative factor in the toxic interaction between PB and DEET. Furthermore, PB, DEET and PB + DEET induce seizures that are resistant to standard anticonvulsants, and each appears to operate through different mechanisms to produce seizures. Peripheral muscarinic receptors may play a specific role in lethality caused by PB + DEET. (+info)
Development and evaluation of LIPODEET, a new long-acting formulation of N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) for the prevention of schistosomiasis.
N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) is a common and fairly safe active ingredient in many insect repellents. Our recent studies showed that when applied to the skin, DEET has a potent anti-parasitic effect against Schistosoma mansoni. However, the beneficial effects of DEET lasted only for a few minutes, presumably due to its rapid absorption through the skin. In this study, we evaluated different carrier formulations that prolong the activity of DEET in the skin. Among the various formulations analyzed, DEET incorporated into liposomes (LIPODEET) appeared to prolong the activity of DEET for more than 48 hr after a single application. Furthermore, LIPODEET was found to be minimally absorbed through the skin and loss due to washing off was limited. These findings thus suggest LIPODEET is a safe and long-acting formulation of DEET that is quite effective against schistosomiasis. (+info)
Chemical defense against predation in an insect egg.
The larva of the green lacewing (Ceraeochrysa cubana) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) is a natural predator of eggs of Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae), a moth that sequesters pyrrolizidine alkaloids from its larval foodplant (Fabaceae, Crotalaria spp.). Utetheisa eggs are ordinarily endowed with the alkaloid. Alkaloid-free Utetheisa eggs, produced experimentally, are pierced by the larva with its sharp tubular jaws and sucked out. Alkaloid-laden eggs, in contrast, are rejected. When attacking an Utetheisa egg cluster (numbering on average 20 eggs), the larva subjects it to an inspection process. It prods and/or pierces a small number of eggs (on average two to three) and, if these contain alkaloid, it passes "negative judgement" on the remainder of the cluster and turns away. Such generalization on the part of the larva makes sense, because the eggs within clusters differ little in alkaloid content. There is, however, considerable between-cluster variation in egg alkaloid content, so clusters in nature can be expected to range widely in palatability. To check each cluster for acceptability must therefore be adaptive for the larva, just as it must be adaptive for Utetheisa to lay its eggs in large clusters and to apportion alkaloid evenly among eggs of a cluster. (+info)