Modulation of chloride, potassium and bicarbonate transport by muscarinic receptors in a human adenocarcinoma cell line.
1. Short-circuit current (I(SC)) responses to carbachol (CCh) were investigated in Colony 1 epithelia, a subpopulation of the HCA-7 adenocarcinoma cell line. In Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, CCh responses consisted of three I(SC) components: an unusual rapid decrease (the 10 s spike) followed by an upward spike at 30 s and a slower transient increase (the 2 min peak). This response was not potentiated by forskolin; rather, CCh inhibited cyclic AMP-stimulated I(SC). 2. In HCO3- free buffer, the decrease in forskolin-elevated I(SC) after CCh was reduced, although the interactions between CCh and forskolin remained at best additive rather than synergistic. When Cl- anions were replaced by gluconate, both Ca2+- and cyclic AMP-mediated electrogenic responses were significantly inhibited. 3. Basolateral Ba2+ (1-10 mM) and 293B (10 microM) selectively inhibited forskolin stimulation of I(SC), without altering the effects of CCh. Under Ba2+- or 293B-treated conditions, CCh responses were potentiated by pretreatment with forskolin. 4. Basolateral charybdotoxin (50 nM) significantly increased the size of the 10 s spike of CCh responses in both KH and HCO3- free medium, without affecting the 2 min peak. The enhanced 10 s spike was inhibited by prior addition of 5 mM apical Ba2+. Charybdotoxin did not affect forskolin responses. 5. In epithelial layers prestimulated with forskolin, the muscarinic antagonists atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, both at 100 nM) abolished subsequent 10 microM CCh responses. Following addition of p-fluoro hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pF-HHSiD, 10 microM) or pirenzepine (1 microM), qualitative changes in the CCh response time-profile also indicated a rightward shift of the agonist concentration-response curve; however, 1 microM gallamine had no effect. These results suggest that a single M3-like receptor subtype mediates the secretory response to CCh. 6. It is concluded that CCh and forskolin activate discrete populations of basolateral K+ channels gated by either Ca2+ or cyclic AMP, but that the Cl- permeability of the apical membrane may limit their combined effects on electrogenic Cl- secretion. In addition, CCh activates a Ba2+-sensitive apical K+ conductance leading to electrogenic K+ transport. Both agents may also modulate HCO3- secretion through a mechanism at least partially dependent on carbonic anhydrase. (+info)
Formal analysis of electrogenic sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate transport in mouse colon epithelium.
1. The mammalian colonic epithelium carries out a number of different transporting activities simultaneously, of which more than one is increased following activation with a single agonist. These separate activities can be quantified by solving a set of equations describing these activities, provided some of the dependent variables can be eliminated. Using variations in the experimental conditions, blocking drugs and comparing wild type tissues with those from transgenic animals this has been achieved for electrogenic ion transporting activity of the mouse colon. 2. Basal activity and that following activation with forskolin was measured by short circuit current in isolated mouse colonic epithelia from normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) mice. 3. Using amiloride it is shown that CF colons show increased electrogenic sodium absorption compared to wild type tissues. CF mice had elevated plasma aldosterone, which may be responsible for part or all of the increased sodium absorbtion in CF colons. 4. The derived values for electrogenic chloride secretion and for electrogenic potassium secretion were increased by 13 and 3 fold respectively by forskolin, compared to basal state values for these processes. 5. The loop diuretic, frusemide, completely inhibited electrogenic potassium secretion, but apparently only partially inhibited electrogenic chloride secretion. However, use of bicarbonate-free solutions and acetazolamide reduced the frusemide-resistant current, suggesting that electrogenic bicarbonate secretion accounts for the frusemide-resistant current. 6. It is argued that the use of tissues from transgenic animals is an important adjunct to pharmacological analysis, especially where effects in tissues result in the activation of more than one sort of response. (+info)
Influence of exogenous thiols on inorganic mercury-induced injury in renal proximal and distal tubular cells from normal and uninephrectomized rats.
Inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)) induced time- and concentration-dependent cellular injury in freshly isolated proximal tubular (PT) and distal tubular (DT) cells from normal (control) rats or uninephrectomized (NPX) rats. PT cells from NPX rats were more susceptible than PT cells from control rats, and DT cells were slightly more susceptible than PT cells to cellular injury induced by Hg(2+) (not bound to a thiol). Preloading cells with glutathione increased Hg(2+)-induced cellular injury in PT cells from control rats. However, coincubation of PT or DT cells from control or NPX rats with Hg(2+) and glutathione (1:4) provided significant protection relative to incubations with Hg(2+) alone. No support was obtained for a role for gamma-glutamyltransferase in glutathione-dependent protection. However, the organic anion carrier does appear to play a role in accumulation and toxicity of mercuric conjugates of cysteine in PT cells from control, but not NPX, rats. Coincubation with Hg(2+) and cysteine (1:4) had little effect on, or slightly enhanced, Hg(2+)-induced cellular injury at low concentrations of Hg(2+) in all cells studied. Coincubation with Hg(2+) and albumin (1:4) markedly protected PT and DT cells from control and NPX rats at all concentrations except the highest concentration of Hg(2+) in DT cells from NPX rats. 2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid protected cells both when preloaded or added simultaneously with Hg(2+). Thus, renal cells from NPX rats are more susceptible to Hg(2+)-induced injury, PT and DT cells respond differently to exposure to Hg(2+), and thiols can significantly modulate the toxic response to Hg(2+). (+info)
Analysis of biomedical text for chemical names: a comparison of three methods.
At the National Library of Medicine (NLM), a variety of biomedical vocabularies are found in data pertinent to its mission. In addition to standard medical terminology, there are specialized vocabularies including that of chemical nomenclature. Normal language tools including the lexically based ones used by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) to manipulate and normalize text do not work well on chemical nomenclature. In order to improve NLM's capabilities in chemical text processing, two approaches to the problem of recognizing chemical nomenclature were explored. The first approach was a lexical one and consisted of analyzing text for the presence of a fixed set of chemical segments. The approach was extended with general chemical patterns and also with terms from NLM's indexing vocabulary, MeSH, and the NLM SPECIALIST lexicon. The second approach applied Bayesian classification to n-grams of text via two different methods. The single lexical method and two statistical methods were tested against data from the 1999 UMLS Metathesaurus. One of the statistical methods had an overall classification accuracy of 97%. (+info)
The energetics of phosphate binding to a protein complex.
The heat of binding the serine protease, porcine pancreatic elastase, by the inhibitor, turkey ovomucoid third domain, is dependent on the presence of inorganic phosphate. This dependence is saturable and can be accurately modeled as the phosphate binding to a single site on the protease-inhibitor complex; thus, the elastase-ovomucoid system provides a unique opportunity to study phosphate-protein interactions. We have used isothermal titration calorimetry to investigate this binding, thereby providing one of the few complete thermodynamic characterizations of phosphate interacting with proteins. The binding is characterized by a small favorable deltaG degrees, a large unfavorable deltaH degrees, and a positive deltaCp, thermodynamics consistent with the release of water being linked to phosphate binding. These measurements provide insight into the binding of phosphotyrosine containing peptides to SH2 domains by suggesting the energetic consequences of binding phosphate free from other interactions. (+info)
A new route to peroxynitrite: a role for xanthine oxidoreductase.
Peroxynitrite, a potent oxidising, nitrating and hydroxylating agent, results from the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide. We show that peroxynitrite can be produced by the action of a single enzyme, xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), in the presence of inorganic nitrite, molecular oxygen and a reducing agent, such as pterin. The effects of oxygen concentration on peroxynitrite production have been examined. The physiologically predominant dehydrogenase form of the enzyme is more effective than the oxidase form under aerobic conditions. It is proposed that XOR-derived peroxynitrite fulfils a bactericidal role in milk and in the digestive tract. (+info)
Exposures and health effects from inorganic agricultural dusts.
Most studies of respiratory disease from dust exposure in the agricultural workplace have focused on allergic diseases caused by inorganic dusts, specifically occupational asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Exposures to inorganic (mineral) dusts among farmers and farm workers may be substantial. Such exposures are most frequent in dry-climate farming regions. In such locations farming activities that perturb the soil (e.g., plowing, tilling) commonly result in exposures to farm operators of 1-5 mg/m(3) respirable dust and >= 20 mg/m(3) total dust. The composition of inorganic dust in agriculture generally reflects the soil composition. Crystalline silica may represent up to 20% of particles, and silicates represent up to 80%. These very high concentrations of inorganic dust are likely to explain some of the increase in chronic bronchitis reported in many studies of farmers. Pulmonary fibrosis (mixed dust pneumoconiosis) has been reported in agricultural workers, and dust samples from the lungs in these cases reflect the composition of agricultural soils, strongly suggesting an etiologic role for inorganic agricultural dusts. However, the prevalence and clinical severity of these cases are unknown, and many exposures are to mixed organic and inorganic dusts. Epidemiologic studies of farmers in diverse geographic settings also have observed an increase in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease morbidity and mortality. It is plausible that agricultural exposure to inorganic dusts is causally associated with chronic bronchitis, interstitial fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but the independent contribution of mineral dusts beyond the effects of organic dusts remains to be determined. (+info)
Inorganic dust pneumonias: the metal-related parenchymal disorders.
In recent years the greatest progress in our understanding of pneumoconioses, other than those produced by asbestos, silica, and coal, has been in the arena of metal-induced parenchymal lung disorders. Inhalation of metal dusts and fumes can induce a wide range of lung pathology, including airways disorders, cancer, and parenchymal diseases. The emphasis of this update is on parenchymal diseases caused by metal inhalation, including granulomatous disease, giant cell interstitial pneumonitis, chemical pneumonitis, and interstitial fibrosis, among others. The clinical characteristics, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of disorders arising from exposure to aluminum, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, mercury, and nickel are presented in detail. Metal fume fever, an inhalation fever syndrome attributed to exposure to a number of metals, is also discussed. Advances in our knowledge of antigen-specific immunologic reactions in the lung are particularly evident in disorders secondary to beryllium and nickel exposure, where immunologic mechanisms have been well characterized. For example, current evidence suggests that beryllium acts as an antigen, or hapten, and is presented by antigen-presenting cells to CD4+ T cells, which possess specific surface antigen receptors. Other metals such as cadmium and mercury induce nonspecific damage, probably by initiating production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, genetic susceptibility markers associated with increased risk have been identified in some metal-related diseases such as chronic beryllium disease and hard metal disease. Future research needs include development of biologic markers of metal-induced immunologic disease, detailed characterization of human exposure, examination of gene alleles that might confer risk, and association of exposure data with that of genetic susceptibility. (+info)