A review of the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and behavioral effects of procaine in thoroughbred horses.
Since procaine has both local anaesthetic and central stimulant actions its presence in the blood or urine of racing horses is forbidden. After rapid intravenous injection of procaine HC1 (2.5 mg/Kg) in thoroughbred mares plasma levels of this drug fell rapidly (t 1/2 alpha = 5 min) and then more slowly (t 1/2 beta = 50.2 min). These kinetics were well fitted by a two compartment open model (Model I). This model gave an apparent Vdbeta for procaine in the horse of about 3,500 litres. Since procaine was about 45% bound to equine plasma protein this gives a true Vdbeta for procaine of about 6,500 litres. After subcutaneous injection of procaine HC1 (3.3 mg/Kg) plasma levels peaked at about 400 ng/ml and then declined with a half-life of about 75 minutes. These data were well fitted by Model I when this was modified to include simple first order absorption (K = 0.048 min-1) from the subcutaneous injection site (Model II). After intramuscular injection of procaine penicillin (33,000 I.U./Kg) plasma levels reached a peak at about 270 ng/ml and then declined with a half-life of about 9 hours. These data were approximately fitted by Model II assuming a first order rate constant for absorption of procaine of 0.0024 min-1. After intramuscular injection of procaine HC1 (10 mg/Kg) plasma levels of procaine peaked rapidly at about 600 ng/ml but thereafter declined slowly (+ 1/2 = 2 hours). A satisfactory pharmaco-kinetic model for this intramuscular data could not be developed. An approximation of these data was obtained by assuming the existence of two intramuscular drug compartments, one containing readily absorbable drug and the other poorly absorbable drug (Model III). After intra-articular administration of procaine (0.33 mg/Kg) plasma levels of this drug reached a peak at about 17 ng/ml and then declined with a half-life of about 2 hours. These data were not modelled. (+info)
Serum ampicillin levels in the calf: influence of dosage, route of administration and dosage form.
Holstein bull calves received ampicillin sodium by the intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous routes and ampicillin trihydrate by the intramuscular route, at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. In addition ampicillin sodium and ampicillin trihydrate were given at a 12 mg/kg dosage intramuscularly. The serum ampicillin concentrations were determined at five, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after drug administration and at 360 min after ampicillin trihydrate injection. Intravenous administration gave a high initial level (16.2 mug/ml) at five min that declined to below 1 mug/ml by 120 min. Subcutaneous administration produced the lowest initial levels of drug but concentrations of drug detected did not differ significantly from the intramuscular administration at any sampling interval. The 12 mg/kg intramuscular ampicillin sodium dosage produced significantly higher levels than the 5 mg/kg dosage only at five min. Ampicillin trihydrate gave higher levels than ampicillin sodium at all times except 30 min (5 mg/kg) and five min (12 mg/kg). The serum ampicillin disappearance study (5 mg/kg intravenous) gave a two component bi-exponential curve. Kinetic analysis of the first component showed a C01 (theoretical initial conc) of 44.8 mug/ml, a ke1 (rate constant of disappearance) of 0.064 mug min and a t1/21 (calculated half-life) of 10.8 min. The Co2, ke2 and t1/22 of the second component were 6.2 mug/ml, 0.0157 mug/min and 46.2 min respectively. (+info)
The urinary elimination profiles of diazepam and its metabolites, nordiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam, in the equine after a 10-mg intramuscular dose.
A method for the extraction of diazepam and its metabolites (nordiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam) from equine urine and serum and their quantitation and confirmation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is presented. Valium, a formulation of diazepam, was administered at a dose of 10 mg intramuscularly to four standard-bred mares. Diazepam is extensively metabolized in the horse to nordiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam. Diazepam urinary concentrations were found to be less than 6 ng/mL. Nordiazepam was found to be mainly in its glucuronide-conjugated form and was measured out to a collection time of 53-55 h. Oxazepam and temazepam were entirely conjugated, and their urinary concentrations were measured out to collection times of 121 h and 77-79 h, respectively. Diazepam and nordiazepam were measured in equine postadministration serum out to collection times of 6 and 54 h, respectively. Oxazepam and temazepam were not detected in postadministration serum. (+info)
Treatment of lysosomal storage disease in MPS VII mice using a recombinant adeno-associated virus.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a genetic deficiency of beta-glucuronidase (GUS). We used a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (AAV-GUS) to deliver GUS cDNA to MPS VII mice. The route of vector administration had a dramatic effect on the extent and distribution of GUS activity. Intramuscular injection of AAV-GUS resulted in high, localized production of GUS, while intravenous administration produced low GUS activity in several tissues. This latter treatment of MPS VII mice reduced glycosaminoglycan levels in the liver to normal and reduced storage granules dramatically. We show that a single administration of AAV-GUS can provide sustained expression of GUS in a variety of cell types and is sufficient to reverse the disease phenotype at least in the liver. (+info)
Treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer with the long-acting somatostatin analogue lanreotide: in vitro and in vivo results.
Fourteen patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma were treated with the long-acting somatostatin (SST) analogue lanreotide. No objective response was obtained, and the median survival was 4 months (range 1.8-7 months). Pancreatic cancer could not be visualized by means of SST-receptor (R) scintigraphy in our patients. In vitro data also demonstrated absence of SSTR2 expression, suggesting pancreatic cancer not to be a potential target for treatment with SST analogues. (+info)
Medroxyprogesterone acetate inhibits interleukin 6 secretion from KPL-4 human breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo: a possible mechanism of the anticachectic effect.
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine. Recent reports suggest that circulating IL-6 secreted from tumour cells plays an important role in cancer-induced cachexia. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) has been used as an endocrine therapeutic agent for patients with breast cancer. It has been suggested that MPA decreases serum IL-6 levels and preserves the bodyweight of patients with advanced breast cancer. However, the mechanisms of action responsible for the anticachectic effect of MPA have not been elucidated. Therefore, the effects of MPA on IL-6 secretion were studied both in vitro and in vivo using a human breast cancer cell line, KPL-4, which secretes IL-6 into medium and induces cachexia when injected into female nude mice. MPA (10-1000 nM) dose-dependently decreased basal IL-6 secretion into medium, and also suppressed tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha)-induced IL-6 secretion. Both basal and TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 mRNA levels were dose-dependently lowered by MPA. Moreover, intramuscular injections of MPA (100 mg kg(-1) twice a week) into nude mice bearing KPL-4 transplanted tumours significantly decreased serum IL-6 levels without affecting tumour growth and preserved the bodyweight of recipient mice. These findings suggest that suppression of IL-6 secretion from tumour cells, at least in part, causes the anticachectic effect of MPA. (+info)
Rescue of diabetes-related impairment of angiogenesis by intramuscular gene therapy with adeno-VEGF.
Diabetes is a major risk factor for coronary and peripheral artery diseases. Although diabetic patients often present with advanced forms of these diseases, it is not known whether the compensatory mechanisms to vascular ischemia are affected in this condition. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether diabetes could: 1) impair the development of new collateral vessel formation in response to tissue ischemia and 2) inhibit cytokine-induced therapeutic neovascularization. Hindlimb ischemia was created by femoral artery ligation in nonobese diabetic mice (NOD mice, n = 20) and in control C57 mice (n = 20). Hindlimb perfusion was evaluated by serial laser Doppler studies after the surgery. In NOD mice, measurement of the Doppler flow ratio between the ischemic and the normal limb indicated that restoration of perfusion in the ischemic hindlimb was significantly impaired. At day 14 after surgery, Doppler flow ratio in the NOD mice was 0.49+/-0.04 versus 0.73+/-0.06 for the C57 mice (P< or =0.005). This impairment in blood flow recovery persisted throughout the duration of the study with Doppler flow ratio values at day 35 of 0.50+/-0.05 versus 0.90+/-0.07 in the NOD and C57 mice, respectively (P< or =0.001). CD31 immunostaining confirmed the laser Doppler data by showing a significant reduction in capillary density in the NOD mice at 35 days after surgery (302+/-4 capillaries/mm2 versus 782+/-78 in C57 mice (P< or =0.005). The reduction in neovascularization in the NOD mice was the result of a lower level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the ischemic tissues, as assessed by Northern blot, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The central role of VEGF was confirmed by showing that normal levels of neovascularization (compared with C57) could be achieved in NOD mice that had been supplemented for this growth factor via intramuscular injection of an adenoviral vector encoding for VEGF. We conclude that 1) diabetes impairs endogenous neovascularization of ischemic tissues; 2) the impairment in new blood vessel formation results from reduced expression of VEGF; and 3) cytokine supplementation achieved by intramuscular adeno-VEGF gene transfer restores neovascularization in a mouse model of diabetes. (+info)
The role of capsaicin-sensitive muscle afferents in fatigue-induced modulation of the monosynaptic reflex in the rat.
1. The role of group III and IV afferent fibres of the lateral gastrocnemious muscle (LG) in modulating the homonymous monosynaptic reflex was investigated during muscle fatigue in spinalized rats. 2. Muscle fatigue was induced by a series of increasing tetanic electrical stimuli (85 Hz, 600 ms) delivered to the LG muscle nerve. Series consisted of increasing train numbers from 1 to 60. 3. Potentials from the spinal cord LG motor pool and from the ventral root were recorded in response to proprioceptive afferent stimulation and analysed before and during tetanic muscle activations. Both the pre- and postsynaptic waves showed an initial enhancement and, after a '12-train' series, an increasing inhibition. 4. The enhancement of the responses to muscle fatiguing stimulation disappeared after L3-L6 dorsal root section, while a partial reflex inhibition was still present. Conversely, after section of the corresponding ventral root, there was only a reduction in the inhibitory effect. 5. The monosynaptic reflex was also studied in animals in which a large number of group III and IV muscle afferents were eliminated by injecting capsaicin (10 mM) into the LG muscle. As a result of capsaicin treatment, the fatigue-induced inhibition of the pre- and postsynaptic waves disappeared, while the response enhancement remained. 6. We concluded that the monosynaptic reflex inhibition, but not the enhancement, was mediated by those group III and IV muscle afferents that are sensitive to the toxic action of capsaicin. The afferents that are responsible for the response enhancement enter the spinal cord through the dorsal root, while those responsible for the inhibition enter the spinal cord through both the ventral and dorsal roots. (+info)