Altered leucocyte trafficking and suppressed tumour necrosis factor alpha release from peripheral blood monocytes after intra-articular glucocorticoid treatment.
OBJECTIVES: A generalised transient improvement may follow intra-articular administration of glucocorticoids to patients with inflammatory arthropathy. This may represent a systemic anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoid released from the joint, mediated through processes such as altered leucocyte trafficking or suppressed release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Patients, who had received intra-articular injections of glucocorticoids were therefore studied for evidence of these two systemic effects. METHODS: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis were studied. Peripheral blood leucocyte counts, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) release by peripheral blood monocytes, blood cortisol concentrations, and blood methylprednisolone concentration were measured for 96 hours after intra-articular injection of methylprednisolone acetate. RESULTS: Measurable concentrations of methylprednisolone were present in blood for up to 96 hours after injection. Significant suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis persisted throughout this time. Altered monocyte and lymphocyte trafficking, as evidenced by peripheral blood monocytopenia and lymphopenia, was apparent by four hours after injection and resolved in concordance with the elimination of methylprednisolone. Granulocytosis was observed at 24 and 48 hours. Release of TNF alpha by endotoxin stimulated peripheral blood monocytes was suppressed at four hours and thereafter. Suppression was maximal at eight hours and was largely reversed by the glucocorticoid antagonist, mifepristone. CONCLUSIONS: After intra-articular injection of methylprednisolone, blood concentrations of glucocorticoid are sufficient to suppress monocyte TNF alpha release for at least four days and to transiently alter leucocyte trafficking. These effects help to explain the transient systemic response to intra-articular glucocorticoids. Suppression of TNF alpha is principally a direct glucocorticoid effect, rather than a consequence of other methylprednisolone induced changes to blood composition. (+info)
Distribution of yttrium 90 ferric hydroxide colloid and gold 198 colloid after injection into knee.
Thirteen knees were injected with yttrium 90(90Y) ferric hydroxide colloid, and 12 with gold 198(198Au) colloid for treatment of persistent synovitis. Retention in the knee and uptake in lymph nodes and liver were measured by a quantitative scanning technique. There was no significant difference in the retention in the knee of the two different colloids. A tendency towards higher lymph node uptake was observed with 198Au compared with 90y. The inflammatory activity of the knee at the time of treatment may have influenced the subsequent lymph node uptake of 198Au, but not that of the 90Y, nor the overall leakage of either from the knee. 90Yferric hydroxide colloid was retained in the treated knee at least as well as other colloids which have been used for this purpose. (+info)
Effects of joint lavage and steroid injection in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: results of a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of joint lavage and intraarticular steroid injection, alone and in combination, in the treatment of patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Ninety-eight patients with painful tibiofemoral OA were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, controlled, 2 x 2 factorial-design trial of 6 months' duration. The 4 treatment groups consisted of 1) intraarticular placebo (1.5 ml of 0.9% normal saline), 2) intraarticular corticosteroids (3.75 mg of cortivazol in 1.5 ml), 3) joint lavage and intraarticular placebo, and 4) joint lavage and intraarticular corticosteroid. Outcome measures evaluated at baseline, week 1, week 4, week 12, and week 24 included severity of pain (100-mm visual analog scale [VAS]), global status (100-mm VAS), and Lequesne's functional index. RESULTS: No interaction between steroid injection and joint lavage was demonstrated. Patients who had undergone joint lavage had significantly improved pain VAS scores at week 24 (P = 0.020). In contrast, corticosteroid injection had no long-term effect (P = 0.313); corticosteroid injection was associated with a decrease in pain only at week 1 (P = 0.003) and week 4 (P = 0.020). After week 4, Lequesne's functional index was not significantly improved regardless of the assigned treatment. CONCLUSION: Compared with placebo, both treatments significantly relieved pain but did not improve functional impairment. The effects of the 2 treatments were additive. Cortivazol provided short-term relief of pain (up to week 4). The effects of joint lavage persisted up to week 24. (+info)
Adenoviral transfer of the viral IL-10 gene periarticularly to mouse paws suppresses development of collagen-induced arthritis in both injected and uninjected paws.
Gene therapy is a promising new approach in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Gene delivery to diseased joints offers the prospect of achieving high, local concentrations of a therapeutic gene product in a sustained manner, while minimizing exposure of nontarget organs. We report that a single administration of a modified adenovirus encoding the Epstein-Barr-derived homologue of IL-10 can suppress the development of disease for extended periods of time when injected locally within the periarticular tissue surrounding the ankle joints of mice with collagen type II-induced arthritis. Furthermore, we show that injection of an adenoviral vector carrying the IL-10 gene into a single paw can suppress development of arthritis in other, noninjected paws of the same individual. The systemic protection resulting from local gene therapy occurred in the absence of detectable levels of viral IL-10 in the serum. Circulating Ab levels to heterologous collagen were unaffected; however, treatment with viral IL-10 significantly suppressed the development of Abs to autologous mouse type II collagen. Thus, the treatment of a single joint by local delivery of the vIL-10 gene may protect multiple joints of the same individual while avoiding deleterious side effects often associated with systemic therapy. (+info)
Intra-articular morphine and/or bupivacaine after total knee replacement.
The postoperative analgesic effects of intra-articular injections of bupivacaine and/or morphine were examined prospectively in 437 patients who had total knee replacement for osteoarthritis. They were divided randomly into four groups. Group I received 10 mg of morphine (1 ml) and 9 ml of saline, group II received 10 ml of bupivacaine (2.5 mg/ml), group III received 10 ml of saline, and group IV received 10 mg of morphine (1 ml) and 9 ml of bupivacaine (2.5 mg/ml). All analgesics administered in the first 24 hours after operation were recorded. The patients rated their pain on the McGill-Melzack scale at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours. No significant differences were found between any of the groups in the use of Demoral and/or Toradol in 24 hours, the length of stay in hospital or the pain rating at 1, 6, 12 or 24 hours. Patients in groups I and IV, whose injections included morphine, used significantly more morphine in the first 24 postoperative hours than did groups II or III. (+info)
Spinal blockade of opioid receptors prevents the analgesia produced by TENS in arthritic rats.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is commonly used for relief of pain. The literature on the clinical application of TENS is extensive. However, surprisingly few reports have addressed the neurophysiological basis for the actions of TENS. The gate control theory of pain is typically used to explain the actions of high-frequency TENS, whereas, low-frequency TENS is typically explained by release of endogenous opioids. The current study investigated the role of mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors in antihyperalgesia produced by low- and high-frequency TENS by using an animal model of inflammation. Antagonists to mu (naloxone), delta (naltrinodole), or kappa (nor-binaltorphimine) opioid receptors were delivered to the spinal cord by microdialysis. Joint inflammation was induced by injection of kaolin and carrageenan into the knee-joint cavity. Withdrawal latency to heat was assessed before inflammation, during inflammation, after drug (or artificial cerebral spinal fluid as a control) administration, and after drug (or artificial cerebral spinal fluid) administration + TENS. Either high- (100 Hz) or low- frequency (4 Hz) TENS produced approximately 100% inhibition of hyperalgesia. Low doses of naloxone, selective for mu opioid receptors, blocked the antihyperalgesia produced by low-frequency TENS. High doses of naloxone, which also block delta and kappa opioid receptors, prevented the antihyperalgesia produced by high-frequency TENS. Spinal blockade of delta opioid receptors dose-dependently prevented the antihyperalgesia produced by high-frequency TENS. In contrast, blockade of kappa opioid receptors had no effect on the antihyperalgesia produced by either low- or high-frequency TENS. Thus, low-frequency TENS produces antihyperalgesia through mu opioid receptors and high-frequency TENS produces antihyperalgesia through delta opioid receptors in the spinal cord. (+info)
Intra-articular primatised anti-CD4: efficacy in resistant rheumatoid knees. A study of combined arthroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, and histology.
OBJECTIVES: CD4+ T cells sustain the chronic synovial inflammatory response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). SB-210396/CE 9.1 is an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody that has documented efficacy in RA when given intravenously. This study aimed to establish the safety and efficacy of the intra-articular administration of SB-210396/CE 9.1 compared with placebo, examining its mode of action using a combined imaging approach of arthroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histology. METHODS: Thirteen RA patients with active, resistant knee synovitis, were randomised to intra-articular injection of placebo (n=3), 0.4 mg (n=3) or 40 mg (n=7) of anti-CD4 after sequential dynamic gadolinium enhanced MRI, followed by same day arthroscopy and synovial membrane biopsy. Imaging and arthroscopic synovial membrane sampling were repeated at six weeks. This study used a unique region of interest (ROI) analysis mapping the MRI area analysed to the specific biopsy site identified arthroscopically, thus providing data for all three modalities at the same synovial membrane site. RESULTS: 12 patients completed the study (one placebo treated patient refused further MRI). Arthroscopic improvement was observed in 0 of 2 placebo patients but in 10 of 10 patients receiving active drug (>20% in 6 of 10). Improvement in MRI was consistently observed in all patients of the 40 mg group but not in the other two groups. A reduction in SM CD4+ score was noted in the 40 mg group and in the 0.4 mg group. Strong correlations both before and after treatment, were identified between the three imaging modalities. Intra-articular delivery of SB-210396/CE 9.1 was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: SB-210396/CE 9.1 is safe when administered by intra-articular injection. A trend toward efficacy was found by coordinated MRI, arthroscopic, and histological imaging, not seen in the placebo group. The value of ROI analysis was demonstrated. (+info)
Direct adenoviral gene transfer of viral IL-10 to rabbit knees with experimental arthritis ameliorates disease in both injected and contralateral control knees.
IL-10, a cytokine produced primarily by macrophages, B lymphocytes, and Th2 cells, has both immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive properties. A homologue of IL-10 encoded by EBV, known as viral IL-10 (vIL-10), is also able to suppress the immune response, but may lack some of the immunostimulatory properties of IL-10. To evaluate the potential of vIL-10 to block the progression of rheumatoid arthritis, we have utilized a replication-defective adenovirus vector to deliver the gene encoding vIL-10 to the knee joints of rabbits with Ag-induced arthritis. Intraarticular expression of vIL-10 significantly reduced leukocytosis, cartilage matrix degradation, and levels of endogenous rabbit TNF-alpha, as well as the degree of synovitis, while maintaining high levels of cartilage matrix synthesis. Interestingly, an antiarthritic effect was also observed in opposing contralateral control knee joints that received only a marker gene. An adenoviral vector carrying the enhanced green fluorescent protein marker gene was used to demonstrate that a morphologically similar subset of cells infected in the injected knee joint are able to traffic to the uninjected contralateral knee joint. Our results suggest that direct, local intraarticular delivery of the vIL-10 gene may have polyarticular therapeutic effects. (+info)