Id helix-loop-helix proteins inhibit nucleoprotein complex formation by the TCF ETS-domain transcription factors.
The Id subfamily of helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins plays a fundamental role in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Id proteins are thought to inhibit differentiation mainly through interaction with other HLH proteins and by blocking their DNA-binding activity. Members of the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily of ETS-domain proteins have key functions in regulating immediate-early gene expression in response to mitogenic stimulation. TCFs form DNA-bound complexes with the serum response factor (SRF) and are direct targets of MAP kinase (MAPK) signal transduction cascades. In this study we demonstrate functional interactions between Id proteins and TCFs. Ids bind to the ETS DNA-binding domain and disrupt the formation of DNA-bound complexes between TCFs and SRF on the c-fos serum response element (SRE). Inhibition occurs by disrupting protein-DNA interactions with the TCF component of this complex. In vivo, the Id proteins cause down-regulation of the transcriptional activity mediated by the TCFs and thereby block MAPK signalling to SREs. Therefore, our results demonstrate a novel facet of Id function in the coordination of mitogenic signalling and cell cycle entry. (+info)
Identification of a novel transcriptional activity of mammalian Id proteins.
The Id proteins are a family of related mammalian helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins which can interact with other HLH proteins but lack a basic region and are thus not thought to bind to DNA. Instead, they are hypothesized to act as dominant negative regulators of DNA-binding basic HLH (bHLH) proteins, by forming inactive heterodimers with these proteins. All four Id family proteins possess related HLH dimerization domains and can interact with similar bHLH proteins, although with differing affinities. The functions of the largely unrelated N- and C-terminal regions of the proteins are unknown. In this study, we have identified a novel transcriptional activity of the mammalian Id proteins. We show that when fused to the heterologous GAL4 DNA-binding domain, all four of the mammalian Id proteins can activate GAL4-dependent transcription. The HLH domain is necessary for the transactivation activity observed, suggesting that interaction with a cellular HLH protein is required. Co-transfection with exogenous Class A bHLH proteins (E-proteins) greatly potentiates the transactivation, which is abolished upon co-transfection with Class B bHLH proteins. These results are consistent with the idea that the Id proteins have a transcriptional activity when present in a DNA-binding complex. (+info)
Disruption of alpha beta but not of gamma delta T cell development by overexpression of the helix-loop-helix protein Id3 in committed T cell progenitors.
Enforced expression of Id3, which has the capacity to inhibit many basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, in human CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells that have not undergone T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements inhibits development of the transduced cells into TCRalpha beta and gamma delta cells in a fetal thymic organ culture (FTOC). Here we document that overexpression of Id3, in progenitors that have initiated TCR gene rearrangements (pre-T cells), inhibits development into TCRalpha beta but not into TCRgamma delta T cells. Furthermore, Id3 impedes expression of recombination activating genes and downregulates pre-Talpha mRNA. These observations suggest possible mechanisms by which Id3 overexpression can differentially affect development of pre-T cells into TCRalpha beta and gamma delta cells. We also observed that cell surface CD4(-)CD8(-)CD3(-) cells with rearranged TCR genes developed from Id3-transduced but not from control-transduced pre-T cells in an FTOC. These cells had properties of both natural killer (NK) and pre-T cells. These findings suggest that bHLH factors are required to control T cell development after the T/NK developmental checkpoint. (+info)
Early neocortical regionalization in the absence of thalamic innervation.
There is a long-standing controversy regarding the mechanisms that generate the functional subdivisions of the cerebral neocortex. One model proposes that thalamic axonal input specifies these subdivisions; the competing model postulates that patterning mechanisms intrinsic to the dorsal telencephalon generate neocortical regions. Gbx-2 mutant mice, whose thalamic differentiation is disrupted, were investigated. Despite the lack of cortical innervation by thalamic axons, neocortical region-specific gene expression (Cadherin-6, EphA-7, Id-2, and RZR-beta) developed normally. This provides evidence that patterning mechanisms intrinsic to the neocortex specify the basic organization of its functional subdivisions. (+info)
Impaired immune responses and B-cell proliferation in mice lacking the Id3 gene.
B-lymphocyte activation and proliferation induced by the B-cell receptor (BCR) signals are important steps in the initiation of humoral immune responses. How the BCR signals are translated by nuclear transcription factors into cell cycle progression is poorly understood. Id3 is an immediate-early gene responding to growth and mitogenic signals in many cell types including B cells. The primary function of the Id3 protein has been defined as that of inhibitor of basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. The interaction between Id3 and bHLH proteins, many of which are essential for cellular differentiation, has been proposed as a key regulatory event leading to cellular proliferation instead of differentiation. To further investigate the role of Id3 in tissue and embryo development and the mechanism of Id3-mediated growth regulation, we generated and analyzed Id3-deficient mice. While these mice display no overt abnormality in tissue and embryo development, their humoral immunity is compromised. The amounts of immunoglobulins produced in Id3-deficient mice immunized with a T-cell-dependent antigen and a type 2 T-cell-independent antigen are attenuated and severely impaired, respectively. Further analysis of lymphocytes isolated from Id3-deficient mice reveals a B-cell defect in their proliferation response to BCR cross-linking but not to lipopolysaccharide or a combination of BCR cross-linking and interleukin-4. Analyses of cultured lymphocytes also suggest involvement of Id3 in cytokine production in T cells and isotype switching in B cells. Finally, the proliferation defect in Id3-deficient B cells can be rescued by ectopic expression of Id1, a homologue of Id3. Taken together, these results define a necessary and specific role for Id3 in mediating signals from BCR to cell cycle progression during humoral immune responses. (+info)
Id-1 and Id-2 are overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and in dysplastic lesions in chronic pancreatitis.
Id proteins antagonize basic helix-loop-helix proteins, inhibit differentiation, and enhance cell proliferation. In this study we compared the expression of Id-1, Id-2, and Id-3 in the normal pancreas, in pancreatic cancer, and in chronic pancreatitis (CP). Northern blot analysis demonstrated that all three Id mRNA species were expressed at high levels in pancreatic cancer samples by comparison with normal or CP samples. Pancreatic cancer cell lines frequently coexpressed all three Ids, exhibiting a good correlation between Id mRNA and protein levels, as determined by immunoblotting with highly specific anti-Id antibodies. Immunohistochemistry using these antibodies demonstrated the presence of faint Id-1 and Id-2 immunostaining in pancreatic ductal cells in the normal pancreas, whereas Id-3 immunoreactivity ranged from weak to strong. In the cancer tissues, many of the cancer cells exhibited abundant Id-1, Id-2, and Id-3 immunoreactivity. Scoring on the basis of percentage of positive cells and intensity of immunostaining indicated that Id-1 and Id-2 were increased significantly in the cancer cells by comparison with the respective controls. Mild to moderate Id immunoreactivity was also seen in the ductal cells in the CP-like areas adjacent to these cells and in the ductal cells of small and interlobular ducts in CP. In contrast, in dysplastic and atypical papillary ducts in CP, Id-1 and Id-2 immunoreactivity was as significantly elevated as in the cancer cells. These findings suggest that increased Id expression may be associated with enhanced proliferative potential of pancreatic cancer cells and of proliferating or dysplastic ductal cells in CP. (+info)
Genetic modification of human B-cell development: B-cell development is inhibited by the dominant negative helix loop helix factor Id3.
Transgenic and gene targeted mice have contributed greatly to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying B-cell development. We describe here a model system that allows us to apply molecular genetic techniques to the analysis of human B-cell development. We constructed a retroviral vector with a multiple cloning site connected to a gene encoding green fluorescent protein by an internal ribosomal entry site. Human CD34(+)CD38(-) fetal liver cells, cultured overnight in a combination of stem cell factor and interleukin-7 (IL-7), could be transduced with 30% efficiency. We ligated the gene encoding the dominant negative helix loop helix (HLH) factor Id3 that inhibits many enhancing basic HLH transcription factors into this vector. CD34(+)CD38(-) FL cells were transduced with Id3-IRES-GFP and cultured with the murine stromal cell line S17. In addition, we cultured the transduced cells in a reaggregate culture system with an SV-transformed human fibroblast cell line (SV19). It was observed that overexpression of Id3 inhibited development of B cells in both culture systems. B-cell development was arrested at a stage before expression of the IL-7Ralpha. The development of CD34(+)CD38(-) cells into CD14(+) myeloid cells in the S17 system was not inhibited by overexpression of Id3. Moreover, Id3(+) cells, although inhibited in their B-cell development, were still able to develop into natural killer (NK) cells when cultured in a combination of Flt-3L, IL-7, and IL-15. These findings confirm the essential role of bHLH factors in B-cell development and demonstrate the feasibility of retrovirus-mediated gene transfer as a tool to genetically modify human B-cell development. (+info)
Localized XId3 mRNA activation in Xenopus embryos by cytoplasmic polyadenylation.
In Xenopus development, during meiosis and cleavage, the extent of polyadenylation plays a central role in regulating the expression of transcripts and this is mediated by cis regulatory cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPE) in the 3'-UTRs. We have identified a palindromic CPE in the mRNA of Xenopus Id3 which is conserved in the Id genes from other vertebrates. It promotes cytoplasmic polyadenylation and is negatively regulated by sequences further upstream in the 3'-UTR. This palindromic CPE promotes polyadenylation in both the epithelial and sensorial layers of the dorsal ectoderm in early embryos, but association with the upstream negative element blocks this effect in the epithelial layer. The asymmetric polyadenylation may be important for establishing a prepattern of transcriptional regulators. (+info)