Id helix-loop-helix proteins inhibit nucleoprotein complex formation by the TCF ETS-domain transcription factors.
The Id subfamily of helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins plays a fundamental role in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Id proteins are thought to inhibit differentiation mainly through interaction with other HLH proteins and by blocking their DNA-binding activity. Members of the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily of ETS-domain proteins have key functions in regulating immediate-early gene expression in response to mitogenic stimulation. TCFs form DNA-bound complexes with the serum response factor (SRF) and are direct targets of MAP kinase (MAPK) signal transduction cascades. In this study we demonstrate functional interactions between Id proteins and TCFs. Ids bind to the ETS DNA-binding domain and disrupt the formation of DNA-bound complexes between TCFs and SRF on the c-fos serum response element (SRE). Inhibition occurs by disrupting protein-DNA interactions with the TCF component of this complex. In vivo, the Id proteins cause down-regulation of the transcriptional activity mediated by the TCFs and thereby block MAPK signalling to SREs. Therefore, our results demonstrate a novel facet of Id function in the coordination of mitogenic signalling and cell cycle entry. (+info)
Defects in tracheoesophageal and lung morphogenesis in Nkx2.1(-/-) mouse embryos.
NKX2.1 is a homeodomain transcriptional factor expressed in thyroid, lung, and parts of the brain. We demonstrate that septation of the anterior foregut along the dorsoventral axis, into distinct tracheal and esophageal structures, is blocked in mouse embryos carrying a homozygous targeted disruption of the Nkx2.1 locus. This is consistent with the loss of Nkx2.1 expression, which defines the dorsoventral boundary within the anterior foregut in wild-type E9 embryos. Failure in septation between the trachea and the esophagus in Nkx2.1(-/-) mice leads to the formation of a common lumen that connects the pharynx to the stomach, serving both as trachea and as esophagus, similar in phenotype to a human pathologic condition termed tracheoesophageal fistula. The main-stem bronchi bifurcate from this common structure and connect to profoundly hypoplastic lungs. The mutant lungs fail to undergo normal branching embryogenesis, consist of highly dilated sacs that are not capable of sustaining normal gas exchange functions, and lead to immediate postnatal death. In situ hybridization suggests reduced Bmp-4 expression in the mutant lung epithelium, providing a possible mechanistic clue for impaired branching. Functional deletion of Nkx2. 1 blocks pulmonary-specific epithelial cell differentiation marked by the absence of pulmonary surfactant protein gene expression. Altered expression of temporally regulated genes such as Vegf demonstrates that the lung in Nkx2.1(-/-) mutant embryos is arrested at early pseudoglandular (E11-E15) stage. These results demonstrate a critical role for Nkx2.1 in morphogenesis of the anterior foregut and the lung as well as in differentiation of pulmonary epithelial cells. (+info)
Identification of Id2 as a globin regulatory protein by representational difference analysis of K562 cells induced to express gamma-globin with a fungal compound.
A fungus-derived compound (OSI-2040) which induces fetal globin expression in the absence of erythroid cell differentiation was identified in a high-throughput drug discovery program. We utilized this compound to isolate gamma-globin regulatory genes that are differentially expressed in OSI-2040-induced and uninduced cells in the human erythroleukemia cell line K562. Representational difference analysis (RDA) of cDNA revealed several genes that were significantly up- or down-regulated in OSI-2040-induced cells. One gene whose expression was markedly enhanced was the gene for the helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factor Id2. Southern analysis of RDA amplicons demonstrated progressive enrichment of Id2 with each successive subtraction of uninduced cDNA from induced cDNA. Northern analysis of OSI-2040-induced K562 cells confirmed that Id2 expression was directly up-regulated coordinately with gamma-globin. Analysis of other inducers of fetal globin demonstrated up-regulation of Id2 with sodium butyrate but not with hemin. Retrovirus-mediated overexpression of Id2 in K562 cells reproduced the enhancement of endogenous globin expression observed with OSI-2040 induction. Functional assays demonstrated that an E-box element in hypersensitivity site 2 is required for Id2-dependent enhancement of gamma-promoter activity. Protein binding studies suggest that alterations in E-box site occupancy by basic HLH proteins may influence this activity, thus expanding the potential role of these factors in globin gene regulation. (+info)
Id-1 and Id-2 are overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and in dysplastic lesions in chronic pancreatitis.
Id proteins antagonize basic helix-loop-helix proteins, inhibit differentiation, and enhance cell proliferation. In this study we compared the expression of Id-1, Id-2, and Id-3 in the normal pancreas, in pancreatic cancer, and in chronic pancreatitis (CP). Northern blot analysis demonstrated that all three Id mRNA species were expressed at high levels in pancreatic cancer samples by comparison with normal or CP samples. Pancreatic cancer cell lines frequently coexpressed all three Ids, exhibiting a good correlation between Id mRNA and protein levels, as determined by immunoblotting with highly specific anti-Id antibodies. Immunohistochemistry using these antibodies demonstrated the presence of faint Id-1 and Id-2 immunostaining in pancreatic ductal cells in the normal pancreas, whereas Id-3 immunoreactivity ranged from weak to strong. In the cancer tissues, many of the cancer cells exhibited abundant Id-1, Id-2, and Id-3 immunoreactivity. Scoring on the basis of percentage of positive cells and intensity of immunostaining indicated that Id-1 and Id-2 were increased significantly in the cancer cells by comparison with the respective controls. Mild to moderate Id immunoreactivity was also seen in the ductal cells in the CP-like areas adjacent to these cells and in the ductal cells of small and interlobular ducts in CP. In contrast, in dysplastic and atypical papillary ducts in CP, Id-1 and Id-2 immunoreactivity was as significantly elevated as in the cancer cells. These findings suggest that increased Id expression may be associated with enhanced proliferative potential of pancreatic cancer cells and of proliferating or dysplastic ductal cells in CP. (+info)
The adenovirus E1A domains required for induction of DNA rereplication in G2/M arrested cells coincide with those required for apoptosis.
Induction of apoptosis by adenovirus E1A in rodent cells is stimulated by wild type (wt) p53 but completely suppressed by mutated p53. The suppression is overcome by coexpression with Id proteins (Ids). The cells expressing E1A and Ids undergo apoptosis after accumulation in S phase, suggesting that S phase events are perturbed by E1A and Ids. The E1A domains required for induction of apoptosis, analysed by transfection with expression vectors for E1A, Ids and their mutants, followed by flow cytometry, reside in N-terminal (positions 17 - 38), CR1 and CR2 regions. Interaction of E1A with Ids requires the N-terminal and CR1 regions. The cyclin D1 promoter activity in S phase was reduced severely by E1A and this reduction is caused through CR1 and CR2 regions required for interaction with pRB. Analysis of DNA synthesis in G2/M arrested cells indicated that E1A is capable of inducing >4 N cells and this E1A-mediated DNA rereplication is enhanced by coexpression with Id-1H. The E1A domains required for induction of DNA rereplication coincide with those required for apoptosis. (+info)
Genetic control of cortical regionalization and connectivity.
Herein, the genetic control of regionalization and connectivity of the neocortex are reviewed. Evidence is accumulating which suggests that intrinsic mechanisms have a central role in controlling cortical regional specification and differentiation. Expression patterns of several genes (Id-2, Tbr-1, cadherin-6, cadherin-8, neuropilin-2, Wnt-7b, Eph-A7 and RZR-beta) are described; the expressions of these genes have regional boundaries which demarcate distinct functional areas of the cerebral cortex in neonatal mice. (+info)
Localized XId3 mRNA activation in Xenopus embryos by cytoplasmic polyadenylation.
In Xenopus development, during meiosis and cleavage, the extent of polyadenylation plays a central role in regulating the expression of transcripts and this is mediated by cis regulatory cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPE) in the 3'-UTRs. We have identified a palindromic CPE in the mRNA of Xenopus Id3 which is conserved in the Id genes from other vertebrates. It promotes cytoplasmic polyadenylation and is negatively regulated by sequences further upstream in the 3'-UTR. This palindromic CPE promotes polyadenylation in both the epithelial and sensorial layers of the dorsal ectoderm in early embryos, but association with the upstream negative element blocks this effect in the epithelial layer. The asymmetric polyadenylation may be important for establishing a prepattern of transcriptional regulators. (+info)
Functional antagonism between inhibitor of DNA binding (Id) and adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1/sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (ADD1/SREBP-1c) trans-factors for the regulation of fatty acid synthase promoter in adipocytes.
We show that Id (inhibitor of DNA binding) 2 and Id3, dominant negative members of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family, interact with the adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1 (ADD1)/sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1c, a transcription factor of the basic HLH-leucine zipper family that controls the expression of several key genes of adipose metabolism. Gel mobility-shift assays performed with in vitro-translated ADD1, Id2 or Id3 proteins and a fatty acid synthase (FAS) promoter oligonucleotide showed evidence for a marked inhibition of the formation of DNA-ADD1 complexes by Id2 or Id3 proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation studies using in vitro-translated proteins demonstrated further the physical interaction of Id and ADD1/SREBP-1c proteins in the absence of DNA. Using the FAS gene as a model of an ADD1-regulated promoter in transiently transfected isolated rat adipocytes or mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, a potent inhibition of the activity of the FAS-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene was observed by overexpression of Id2 or Id3. Reciprocally, co-transfection of Id3 antisense and ADD1 expression vectors in preadipocytes potentiated the ADD1/SREBP-1c effect on the FAS promoter activity. Finally, in the non adipogenic NIH-3T3 cell line, most of the ADD1-mediated trans-activation of the FAS promoter was counteracted by co-transfection of Id2 or Id3 expression vectors. Previous studies have indicated Id gene expression to be down-regulated during adipogenesis [Moldes, Lasnier, Feve, Pairault and Djian (1997) Mol. Cell. Biol. 17, 1796-1804]. We here demonstrated that there was a dramatic rise of Id2 and Id3 mRNA levels when 3T3-L1 adipocytes or isolated rat fat cells were exposed to lipolytic and anti-lipogenic agents, forskolin and isoproterenol. Taken together, our data show that Id products are functionally involved in modulating ADD1/SREBP-1c transcriptional activity, and thus lipogenesis in adipocytes. (+info)