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(1/770) The effect of hiatus hernia on gastro-oesophageal junction pressure.

BACKGROUND: Hiatus hernia and lower oesophageal sphincter hypotension are often viewed as opposing hypotheses for gastro-oesophageal junction incompetence. AIMS: To examine the interaction between hiatus hernia and lower oesophageal sphincter hypotension. METHODS: In seven normal subjects and seven patients with hiatus hernia, the squamocolumnar junction and intragastric margin of the gastro-oesophageal junction were marked with endoscopically placed clips. Axial and radial characteristics of the gastro-oesophageal junction high pressure zone were mapped relative to the hiatus and clips during concurrent fluoroscopy and manometry. Responses to inspiration and abdominal compression were also analysed. RESULTS: In normal individuals the squamocolumnar junction was 0.5 cm below the hiatus and the gastro-oesophageal junction high pressure zone extended 1.1 cm distal to that. In those with hiatus hernia, the gastro-oesophageal junction high pressure zone had two discrete segments, one proximal to the squamocolumnar junction and one distal, attributable to the extrinsic compression within the hiatal canal. Inspiration and abdominal compression mainly augmented the distal one. Simulation of hernia reduction by algebraically summing the proximal segment pressures with the hiatal canal pressures restored normal maximal pressure, radial asymmetry, and dynamic responses of the gastro-oesophageal junction. CONCLUSIONS: Hiatus hernia reduces lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and alters its dynamic responsiveness by spatially separating pressure components derived from the intrinsic lower oesophageal sphincter and the extrinsic compression of the oesophagus within the hiatal canal.  (+info)

(2/770) Aspirated foreign bodies in the tracheobronchial tree: report of 250 cases.

During the last 14 years, 250 patients with aspirated foreign bodies in the tracheobronchial tree were admitted to Kuwait Chest Diseases Hospital. Ninety-six per cent of the cases were under 10 years of age and 38% gave a clear history of foreign body inhalation. The rest were diagnosed either clinically, from the chest radiograph findings or because of unexplained pulmonary symptoms. In 247 cases, bronchoscopy under general anaesthesia was successful in removing the foreign bodies. In only three cases was bronchotomy needed. Seventy per cent of the foreign bodies were melon seeds. Asphyxia and cardiac arrest occurred in four cases during bronchoscopy but the patients were successfully resuscitated. In 10 cases a tracheostomy was done before bronchoscopy and the removal of the foreign body, while in five it was needed after bronchoscopy. Fifteen patients developed late complications such as recurrent pneumonia or atelectasis of the lung. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment are essential to prevent pulmonary and cardiac complications and to avoid radical lung surgery.  (+info)

(3/770) Expiratory time determined by individual anxiety levels in humans.

We have previously found that individual anxiety levels influence respiratory rates in physical load and mental stress (Y. Masaoka and I. Homma. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 27: 153-159, 1997). On the basis of that study, in the present study we investigated the metabolic outputs during tests and analyzed the respiratory timing relationship between inspiration and expiration, taking into account individual anxiety levels. Disregarding anxiety levels, there were correlations between O2 consumption (VO2) and minute ventilation (VE) and between VO2 and tidal volume in the physical load test, but no correlations were observed in the noxious audio stimulation test. There was a volume-based increase in respiratory patterns in physical load; however, VE increased not only for the adjustment of metabolic needs but also for individual mental factors; anxiety participated in this increase. In the high-anxiety group, the VE-to-VO2 ratio, indicating ventilatory efficiency, increased in both tests. In the high-anxiety group, increases in respiratory rate contributed to a VE increase, and there were negative correlations between expiratory time and anxiety scores in both tests. In an awake state, the higher neural structure may dominantly affect the mechanism of respiratory rhythm generation. We focus on the relationship between expiratory time and anxiety and show diagrams of respiratory output, allowing for individual personality.  (+info)

(4/770) Evaluation of pulmonary resistance and maximal expiratory flow measurements during exercise in humans.

To evaluate methods used to document changes in airway function during and after exercise, we studied nine subjects with exercise-induced asthma and five subjects without asthma. Airway function was assessed from measurements of pulmonary resistance (RL) and forced expiratory vital capacity maneuvers. In the asthmatic subjects, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) fell 24 +/- 14% and RL increased 176 +/- 153% after exercise, whereas normal subjects experienced no change in airway function (RL -3 +/- 8% and FEV1 -4 +/- 5%). During exercise, there was a tendency for FEV1 to increase in the asthmatic subjects but not in the normal subjects. RL, however, showed a slight increase during exercise in both groups. Changes in lung volumes encountered during exercise were small and had no consistent effect on RL. The small increases in RL during exercise could be explained by the nonlinearity of the pressure-flow relationship and the increased tidal breathing flows associated with exercise. In the asthmatic subjects, a deep inspiration (DI) caused a small, significant, transient decrease in RL 15 min after exercise. There was no change in RL in response to DI during exercise in either asthmatic or nonasthmatic subjects. When percent changes in RL and FEV1 during and after exercise were compared, there was close agreement between the two measurements of change in airway function. In the groups of normal and mildly asthmatic subjects, we conclude that changes in lung volume and DIs had no influence on RL during exercise. Increases in tidal breathing flows had only minor influence on measurements of RL during exercise. Furthermore, changes in RL and in FEV1 produce equivalent indexes of the variations in airway function during and after exercise.  (+info)

(5/770) Effect on nasal resistance of an external nasal splint and isotonic exercise.

OBJECTIVES: The now commonplace wearing of external nasal splints by sportsmen and athletes has never been scientifically evaluated. The present study looks into the effect of isotonic exercise on nasal resistance, and examines whether this effect is altered by the wearing of an external nasal splint. METHODS: Twenty subjects not suffering from rhinitis were tested. Nasal resistance measurements were recorded using an anterior rhinomanometer before and after isotonic exercise with and without an external nasal splint. Pulse and blood pressure were measured before and after exercise. RESULTS: Significant changes were observed in pulse (p < 0.001) and both systolic (p < 0.002) and diastolic (p < 0.001) blood pressure in response to exercise. Significant differences were seen in nasal resistance when the splint was applied (p < 0.001) and after exercise (p < 0.003). No significant difference was observed after exercise when the splint was worn (p = 0.167). CONCLUSIONS: External nasal splints decrease nasal resistance at rest but are of little value during isotonic exercise.  (+info)

(6/770) Concentration and second-gas effects in the water analogue.

The water analogue provides a visual model of the process of anaesthetic exchange. In the standard version, a single pipe connects the mouth container to the lung container and the conductance of this mouth-lung pipe is proportional to alveolar ventilation. This implies that inspired and expired ventilations are equal. In fact, with high inspired concentrations of nitrous oxide, early rapid uptake of gas by solution leads to a substantial difference between inspired and expired ventilation which in turn leads to concentration and second-gas effects. It is shown that by representing inspired and expired ventilations separately, and keeping one of them constant while varying the other to compensate for rapid uptake, concentration and second-gas effects are reproduced in the water analogue. Other means of reproducing the effects are reported but we believe that the first method is the most realistic and the most appropriate for teaching.  (+info)

(7/770) Evaluation of the new MB redox system for detection of growth of mycobacteria.

We evaluated a new mycobacterial culture system, MB Redox, for recovery rate and time to detection of mycobacteria from 742 consecutive respiratory specimens and compared the results to those found with Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium. Twenty specimens (2.7%) were positive for M. tuberculosis: 17 on LJ medium and 19 in MB Redox, with 16 specimens positive in both media. In addition, 24 specimens (3.2%) were positive for nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), 20 on LJ medium, 18 in MB Redox, and 14 in both media. For M. tuberculosis, the mean times to detection were 28.9 days on LJ medium and 23.6 days in MB Redox, and for NTM, the mean times to detection were 40.6 days on LJ medium and 32.3 days in MB Redox.  (+info)

(8/770) Biopersistence and durability of nine mineral fibre types in rat lungs over 12 months.

The study objectives were to assess the ability of intratracheal injection methods to discriminate between nine fibre types in respect of pulmonary biopersistence, and to provide approximate estimates of relative biopersistence and durability for a study of general relationships with biological and toxicological responses. The test fibres included six samples of size-selected fibre types specially prepared for research purposes, two commercially available fibres, and amosite. A 1 mg dose of each fibre type was administered to rats by intratracheal injection. The relative biopersistence of fibres in different size categories was assessed from the changes in mean lung burden, as determined by electron microscopy, at 3 days and 1, 6 and 12 months after injection. The ability of the test materials to resist dissolution was measured in a parallel series of simple in vitro acellular experiments at two pHs and in a continuous flow dissolution test. The observed differences in the persistence of fibres of differing length recovered from rat lungs were consistent with the current hypothesis that short fibres are cleared by cellular processes and long fibres by dissolution and disintegration. Differences in persistence of long (> 20 microns) fibres were correlated with measured rates of dissolution in vitro. Differences in persistence among those fibre types also studied by others workers were consistent with their findings after inhalation and intratracheal injection. Overall, the differences in the biopersistences of the test fibres following intratracheal injection were sufficient to enable an examination of the relationship of biopersistence with other biological and toxicological responses. Biopersistence was influenced by both fibre dimensions and solubility.  (+info)