Penetrating sledding injuries to the lower torso--2 case reports.
Sledding accidents are frequent and vary in severity. Penetrating sledding injuries are uncommon but may be devastating. Snow-racers--sleds with both steering and braking devices--may be associated with an increased rate of injury. The authors present 2 cases of lower-torso penetrating trauma associated with the use of snow-racers. Both cases involved penetration--of the perineum in one case and the inguinal area in the other--by wooden sticks. Both patients recovered fully after prompt surgical intervention. The authors suggest that the absence of a protective panel at the front of the snow-racer may result in the sledder's lower torso being more exposed to objects encountered while sledding. The injuries reported raise concerns about the safety of modern sleds and the possibility that design changes are needed. (+info)
Superficial femoral eversion endarterectomy combined with a vein segment as a composite artery-vein bypass graft for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the results of composite artery-vein bypass grafting for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction. METHODS: This study was designed as a retrospective case series in two tertiary referral centers. Forty-eight of 51 patients underwent the procedure of interest for the treatment of ischemic skin lesions (n = 42), rest pain (n = 3), disabling claudication (n = 1), and infected prosthesis (n = 2). The intervention used was infrainguinal composite artery-vein bypass grafting to popliteal (n = 18) and infrapopliteal (n = 30) arteries, with an occluded segment of the superficial femoral artery prepared with eversion endarterectomy and an autogenous vein conduit harvested from greater saphenous veins (n = 43), arm veins (n = 3), and lesser saphenous veins (n = 2). The main outcome measures, primary graft patency rates, foot salvage rates, and patient survival rates, were described by means of the life-table method for a mean follow-up time of 15.5 months. RESULTS: The cumulative loss during the follow-up period was 6% and 24% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The primary graft patency rates, the foot salvage rates, and the patient survival rates for patients with popliteal grafts were 60.0% +/- 9.07%, 75.7% +/- 9.18%, and 93.5% +/- 6.03%, respectively, at 1 month; 53.7% +/- 11.85%, 68.9% +/- 12.47%, and 85. 0% +/- 9.92% at 1 year; and 46.7% +/- 18.19%, 68.9% +/- 20.54%, and 53.1% +/- 17.15% at 5 years. For infrapopliteal grafts, the corresponding estimates were 72.4% +/- 7.06%, 72.9% +/- 6.99%, and 92.7% +/- 4.79% at 1 month; 55.6% +/- 10.70%, 55.4% +/- 10.07%, and 77.9% +/- 9.02% at 1 year; and 33.6% +/- 22.36%, 55.4% +/- 30.20%, and 20.8% +/- 9.89% at 5 years. CONCLUSION: The composite artery-vein bypass graft is a useful autogenous alternative for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction when a vein of the required quality is not available or when the procedure needs to be confined to the affected limb. (+info)
Access to occluded infrainguinal bypass grafts with a loopsnare.
Thrombolysis for the treatment of occluded bypass grafts is used in selected clinical circumstances. Unfortunately, a minority of these procedures are technical failures because of the inability to access the occluded graft. We describe a technique that greatly increases the chances of technical success. (+info)
Experimental study of lymph node auto-transplantation in rats.
OBJECTIVE: To observe the restoration of structure and function of auto-transplanted lymph nodes. METHODS: Inguinal lymph nodes in Spregue-Dawley (SD) rats were auto-transplanted by free implantation, or with an intact vascular pedicle, or by free transplantation with microvascular anastomosis, to the popliteal fossa where lymph nodes were removed. The observation methods included emission computerized tomographic (ECT) scanning, staining of China ink and methylthionine chloride to observe the histological changes. RESULTS: After four weeks, these vascularized nodes showed normal histological appearances and spontaneously reestablished afferent and efferent lymphatic reconnection with the surrounding lymphatic vessels. ECT lymphoscintigraphy with 99mTc-Dx showed that vascularized lymph nodes had restored their normal function. CONCLUSION: Vascularized lymph node transplantation is a useful method for draining extremity lymph edema. (+info)
The myth of the in situ graft: superiority in infrainguinal bypass surgery?
OBJECTIVES: to compare the clinical outcome of in situ and reversed bypass grafting. DESIGN: multicentre, prospective, non-randomised study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: five-hundred patients with an in situ graft and 955 patients with a reversed graft were compared regarding graft occlusion, the need for graft revision, and limb salvage. RESULTS: two-year assisted primary patency of femoropopliteal bypass procedures was 82% for in situ and 82% for reversed grafts. The corresponding hazard ratio (HR) for occlusion was 1.27 (95% CI 0. 91-1.77). The 2-year assisted primary patency of femorocrural bypass procedures was 69% for in situ vs. 70% for reversed grafts. The corresponding HR was 1.13 (95% CI 0.73-1.75). Adjustment for relevant baseline variables did not change the results. More reinterventions were needed to maintain integrity and patency of the in situ graft especially in crural bypasses. No differences in limb salvage rates were seen. CONCLUSIONS: reversed and in situ vein grafts have similar patency and limb salvage rates for both femoropopliteal and femorocrural bypass procedures. The in situ graft needs more secondary interventions. (+info)
A new method of intraoperative hydraulic impedance measurement provides valuable prognostic information about infrainguinal graft patency.
PURPOSE: Prognostic information about graft outcome, obtained by using a new method for intraoperative measurement of vascular impedance, was evaluated. METHODS: Hydraulic impedance was measured in 136 infrainguinal bypass grafts that were entered into a multicenter trial. Seventy femoropopliteal and 66 femorocrural polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts were used. The arterial impedance measurement involved a silicon bypass graft temporarily inserted between the proximal and distal anastomoses sites. A flowmeter probe and a pressure transducer were incorporated into the tube. The digitally stored waveforms were subjected to a fast Fourier transformation and both input (Z(x)) and characteristic (Z(0)) impedances, as well as phase relations, were computed and related to graft outcome after 3 years. RESULTS: Significant prognostic information for both popliteal and crural grafts was provided by means of the phase angle of the first harmonic. Primary and secondary patency rates for popliteal bypasses were 45% +/- 1% and 65% +/- 2% for phase angles greater than -40 degrees (n = 57) and 37% +/- 1% and 40% +/- 1% for phase angles less than -40 degrees (n = 13, p(prim ) = not significant, p(sec) < 0.01). For crural grafts, the secondary patency rates were 49% +/- 1% and 61% +/- 2% for phase angles greater than -40 degrees (n = 53) and 15% +/- 1% and 0% for phase angles less than -40 degrees (n = 13, P <.01). All crural bypass grafts with phase angles less than -40 degrees occluded within 16 months. Steady flow resistance, as well as Z(x) and Z(0), failed to indicate a significant relation to graft prognosis. CONCLUSION: This method provides reliable prognostic information regarding graft patency and opens hydraulic impedance measurement to clinical surgery. The phase lag between flow and pressure curves, as expressed by the phase angle of the first harmonic, provides significant prognostic information. (+info)
Impact of race on the treatment for peripheral arterial occlusive disease.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of race on the treatment of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) and to examine the role of access to care and disease distribution on the observed racial disparity. METHODS: The study was performed as a retrospective analysis of hospital discharge abstracts from 1992 to 1995 in 202 non-federal, acute-care hospitals in the state of Florida. The subjects were patients older than 44 years of age who underwent major lower extremity amputation or revascularization (bypass grafting or angioplasty) for PAOD. The main outcome measures were incidence of intervention, incidence per demographic group, multivariate predictors of amputation versus revascularization, multivariate predictors of amputation versus revascularization among those patients with access to sophisticated care (hospital with arteriographic capabilities), and multivariate predictors of surgical bypass graft type (aortoiliac vs infrainguinal). RESULTS: A total of 51,819 procedures (9.1 per 10,000 population) were performed for PAOD during the study period and included 15,579 major lower extremity amputations (30.1%) and 36,240 revascularizations (69.9%). Although the incidence of a procedure for PAOD was comparable between African Americans and whites (9.0 vs 9.6 per 10, 000 demographic group), the incidence of amputation (5.0 vs 2.5 per 10,000 demographic group) was higher and the incidence of revascularization (4.0 vs 7.1 per 10,000 demographic group) was lower among African Americans. Furthermore, multivariate analysis results showed that African Americans (odds ratio, 3.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.34 to 4.30) were significantly more likely than whites to undergo amputation as opposed to revascularization. The secondary multivariate analyses results revealed that African Americans (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.58 to 3. 33) were more likely to undergo amputation among those patients (n = 9193) who underwent arteriography during the procedural admission and to undergo infrainguinal bypass grafting (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.48 to 2.71) among those patients (n = 27,796) who underwent surgical bypass grafting. CONCLUSION: There is a marked racial disparity in the treatment of patients with PAOD that may be caused in part by differences in the severity of disease or disease distribution. (+info)
Potential predictors of outcome in patients with tissue loss who undergo infrainguinal vein bypass grafting.
PURPOSE: Aggressive attempts at limb salvage in patients with ischemic tissue loss are justified by favorable initial results in most patients. The identification of patients whose conditions will not benefit from attempted revascularization remains difficult. METHODS: This study was designed as a retrospective review of prospectively collected clinical data. The subjects were 210 consecutive patients who underwent infrainguinal vein bypass grafting for ischemic tissue loss in the setting of an academic medical center. Bypass grafting was to the popliteal artery in 56 patients, to the infrapopliteal arteries in 131 patients, and to the pedal arteries in 23 patients. The follow-up examination was complete in 209 of 210 patients. One hundred twenty-five patients underwent blinded review of duplex scan venous mapping and arteriography to determine simplified vein and run-off scores. The outcome measures were the influence of risk factors, venous conduit, and runoff on mortality, limb loss, and graft failure at the 6-month follow-up examination. RESULTS: One hundred seventy patients (81%) were alive and had limb salvage. Nineteen patients (9.1%) died, with need for a simultaneous inflow procedure and end-stage renal disease being most commonly associated with mortality. Thirty-three patients (15.8%) had undergone amputation: 18 after graft failure, and 15 for progressive tissue loss despite a patent graft. Amputation was significantly more common in patients with diabetes (P =.05) and with poor runoff scores (poor runoff, 44.4% vs good runoff, 7.4%; P <.01). Amputation despite a patent graft also correlated with runoff (poor runoff, 41.7% vs good runoff, 4.3%; P <.01). Twenty-five patients had graft failure without amputation, so that only 145 patients (69.4%) were alive, had limb salvage, and had a patent graft. Run-off score was the strongest predictor of outcome, with 70% of patients with poor run-off scores having death, amputation, or graft failure. CONCLUSION: Aggressive use of infrainguinal vein bypass grafting in patients with ischemic tissue loss results in a high rate of initial limb salvage but significant morbidity and mortality. Arteriographically determined runoff scores appear to potentially identify patients at high risk for a poor initial outcome and may provide a method of selecting patients for primary amputation. (+info)