(1/428) Intraperitoneal insemination of the guinea pig with synchronized estrus induced by progesterone implant.

Female guinea pigs with synchronized ovulation by means of implantation of progesterone-filled tubing (P-tube) followed by a progesterone injection, were inseminated by intraperitoneal injection with sperm suspension. First, to obtain the optimum conditions for insemination, the females were inseminated singly over the range of 1-10 x 10(7) spermatozoa before and after the synchronized ovulation. The incidence of conception and implantation was 100% in the females given more than 5 x 10(7)/animal at 9:00 h on the 5th day after removal of the P-tube. Second, the reproductive ability of the inseminated females under this optimal condition was observed throughout the pregnancy to delivery. Inseminated females had a mean +/- S.D. gestation period of 68.7 +/- 0.5 days, a litter size of 2.8 +/- 0.6 pups and body weight of 110 +/- 14 g. These data were comparable to those of naturally-mated females. Our findings suggest that the artificial insemination by intraperitoneal injection in combination with the synchronized estrus technique is very useful for production control in a small colony of guinea pigs.  (+info)

(2/428) A phase I/II study of continuous intra-arterial chemotherapy using an implantable reservoir for the treatment of liver metastases from breast cancer: a Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) study 9113. JCOG Breast Cancer Study Group.

BACKGROUND: Liver metastasis from breast cancer has a poor prognosis. While there are some reports of good response rates of hepatic metastasis from breast cancer by hepatic intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy, no phase I study including pharmacokinetic analysis has been reported. We performed a phase I/II study of intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy using adriamycin and 5-fluorouracil to find the maximum tolerated dose and response rate in patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer. METHODS: A hepatic arterial catheter with an access port was inserted into the proper hepatic artery. Patients received 30 mg/m2 adriamycin on days 1 and 8 and 100 mg/m2 5-fluorouracil at level 1, 200 mg/m2 at level 2,300 mg/m2 at level 3 and 400 mg/m2 at level 4 continuously from day 1 through day 14 every 28 days. At least two cycles were required before evaluation. Twenty-eight patients were entered into this study and 26 patients were evaluable. Seventeen patients had hepatic metastasis only, although nine patients had additional metastasis to other sites. RESULTS: Dose-limiting toxicity of thrombocytopenia and neurotoxicity occurred at level 4. Leukocytopenia (ECOG grade 3-4) was observed in five (19%), thrombocytopenia in three (12%) and anemia in two (8%) patients. There were 11 catheter-related complications which were not dose dependent. Seven out of 13 evaluable patients (54%) responded at level 3. The median duration of response was 5.8 months (range, 1-23+) and median survival was 25.3 months (range, 6.2-54.7+). CONCLUSION: Hepatic arterial infusion therapy appears to be safe and effective but catheter-related complications must be overcome before starting a phase III trial.  (+info)

(3/428) Cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in aging: reversal of hypercholesterolemia by growth hormone treatment in old rats.

Plasma cholesterol levels increase with age, as does the incidence of coronary heart disease. The mechanisms responsible for the age-related hypercholesterolemia are not well understood. An interesting hypothesis suggests that the relative deficiency in growth hormone (GH), which occurs with aging, contributes to the development of the age-related hypercholesterolemia, because GH has beneficial effects on cholesterol metabolism. In the present work, we tested this hypothesis by the administration of GH to normal rats of varying ages. Plasma lipids and hepatic cholesterol metabolism were characterized in 2-, 12-, and 18-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. In 2-month-old rats, GH specifically stimulated the hepatic low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression in a dose-dependent way, both at the protein level and at the mRNA level. Concomitantly, plasma cholesterol increased by approximately 30% within the large high density lipoprotein and LDL fractions. In 12-month-old animals, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (C7alphaOH) activity was reduced, whereas hepatic LDL receptors and plasma total cholesterol were unchanged. GH treatment (1 mg. kg-1. d-1) normalized the activity of C7alphaOH and had effects on plasma cholesterol and LDL receptors similar to those seen in 2-month-old animals. In 18-month-old rats, plasma cholesterol was increased 2-fold, whereas hepatic LDL receptor expression and C7alphaOH activity were similar to those of the 12-month-old animals. Infusion of GH to 18-month-old rats had similar effects on hepatic C7alphaOH and LDL receptors as seen in 12-month-old rats. However, GH treatment strongly reduced the hypercholesterolemia in 18-month-old animals. We conclude that the age-dependent increase of plasma cholesterol in rats can be reversed by the administration of GH, presumably through the pleiotropic effects of this hormone on lipoprotein metabolism.  (+info)

(4/428) The effect of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device on human endometrial oestrogen and progesterone receptors after one year of use.

Thirty-four women bearing a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device, 20 micrograms/day (LNG-IUD-20), for 12-15 months were recruited. Endometrial biopsies were collected during the late proliferative phase of the cycle (on cycle days 10-12) before (control) and after the use of the IUD for 12 months, and assayed for oestrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR). An immunohistochemical technique with the peroxidase-antiperoxidase detection system (PAP method) was employed. D75 and JZB39 were the primary antibodies for ER and PR respectively. The immunostaining semiquantitative analysis was performed with a computerized microscope image processor, and expressed as 'grey value'. Both endometrial ER and PR populations were significantly lower after insertion of the IUD (P < 0.01) than in control biopsies. The intensity of nuclear staining and the percentage of positively stained cells for ER and PR in women with LNG-IUD were each about 50% of those in control biopsies. The results suggested that LNG released locally from the IUD has a depressive action on the ER and PR, which may contribute to the contraceptive effectiveness of this type of IUD and also to the possible causes of LNG-IUD-induced irregular bleeding and amenorrhoea.  (+info)

(5/428) A multicentre efficacy and safety study of the single contraceptive implant Implanon. Implanon Study Group.

An open, multicentre study was performed to assess efficacy, safety and acceptability of the single-rod contraceptive implant Implanon. The study involved 635 young healthy women, who were sexually active and of childbearing potential. The women were followed up every 3 months over the entire study period. Originally the study was designed for 2 years, but was extended to 3 years in a group of 147 women from two centres. Altogether, 21 centres in nine different countries participated. The average age of the women was 29 years (range 18-42 years), of whom 83.5% had been pregnant in the past. No pregnancy occurred during treatment with Implanon, resulting in a Pearl Index of 0 (95% confidence interval: 0.0-0.2). In the first 2 years, 31% had discontinued the treatment. Of the 147 women in the study extension, nine discontinued (6%) treatment. Bleeding irregularities was the main reason for discontinuation during the first 2 years of use (17.2%) and adverse experiences in the third year (3.4%). Implant insertion and removal were fast and uncomplicated in the vast majority (97%) of cases. Return of fertility was prompt. In conclusion, Implanon has excellent contraceptive action during its lifetime of 3 years. The safety profile is acceptable and not essentially different from progestogens in general.  (+info)

(6/428) Management of cancer in pregnancy: a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the pelvis in the third trimester.

Ewing's sarcoma of the pelvic bones was diagnosed in a 21-year childbearing woman, raising major medical and ethical problems. The diagnostic and therapeutic approaches during the sixth month of gestation were tailored in order to cure the patient and avoid unnecessary toxicity to the fetus. Ancillary tests included ultrasound and MRI studies of the pelvis. Ifosfamide and adriamycin, premedicated by granisetron, were administered during gestation, and were found to be safe. Cesarean section was the preferred way of delivery since the tumor involved the pelvic bones. The outcome was a disease-free patient and a small healthy baby who is now two years of age.  (+info)

(7/428) Differential expression and cross-regulatory function of RANTES during mycobacterial (type 1) and schistosomal (type 2) antigen-elicited granulomatous inflammation.

The role of RANTES in Th1 and Th2 cell-mediated immune responses has been enigmatic. To approach this question, we analyzed RANTES expression and function in murine models of types 1 and 2 cell-mediated pulmonary granulomas elicited with Mycobacterium bovis or Schistosoma mansoni egg Ag-coated beads, respectively. Compared with type 2, type 1 lesions had up to 4-fold greater RANTES protein and mRNA production. Type 1 draining lymph nodes also produced up to 7-fold higher levels of RANTES. Anti-RANTES Ab treatments had opposite effects, decreasing type 1 lesion area by 25% and augmenting type 2 lesions by 50%. The latter was associated with increased IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 production by lymph nodes. Infusion of rRANTES (1 mg/kg/day) did not affect type 1 lesions, but reduced type 2 lesion area by 27% and eosinophils by 40%. Lymph node cultures from RANTES-treated mice had augmented type 1 and impaired type 2 responses. In vitro, RANTES caused selective, dose-related inhibition of IL-4 that was largely dependent on CCR1 receptors. In conclusion, RANTES plays different roles in types 1 and 2 granuloma formation, promoting the former and mediating cross-regulatory inhibition of the latter. Moreover, RANTES may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of established type 2 hypersensitivity.  (+info)

(8/428) Intermittent inhibition of dentin mineralization of rat incisors under continual infusion of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) using a subcutaneous mini osmotic pump.

The inhibitory effect of the continual administration of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) (8 mgP/kg/day) through a mini osmotic pump on dentin mineralization was examined in relation to the diurnal rhythm of the rat and compared with that of daily injections of same amounts of HEBP known to inhibit dentin mineralization. After daily injections of HEBP, a series of alternating rows of mineralized and non-mineralized dentin islands appeared in the newly formed portion of the crown-analogue of rat incisors. A similar phenomenon occurred under the continual administration of HEBP in rats raised either under regular environmental photofraction or constant lighting conditions. The average distance between the adjacent mineralized dentin islands was 521.0 +/- 51.3 microns in the injected rats. After continual HEBP administration, this was 426.0 +/- 13.2 microns and 416.5 +/- 19.4 microns under ordinary photofraction and constant light, respectively. Although the pattern of individual mineralized dentin islands tended to become irregular in nocturnal rats, no statistical difference was noted between the two values. Rows of mineralized and non-mineralized dentin islands also appeared in the root analogue dentin. No sign of the intermittent inhibition of mineralization was recognized in mesodermal hard tissues other than dentin in the HEBP-affected animals. These data implicate the presence of intrinsic cycles in dentin mineralization at the growing end of rat incisors independent of environmental photofraction as well as the ameloblast function.  (+info)