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(1/3680) A simple restriction fragment length polymorphism-based strategy that can distinguish the internal genes of human H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 influenza A viruses.

A simple molecular technique for rapid genotyping was developed to monitor the internal gene composition of currently circulating influenza A viruses. Sequence information from recent H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 human virus isolates was used to identify conserved regions within each internal gene, and gene-specific PCR primers capable of amplifying all three virus subtypes were designed. Subtyping was based on subtype-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns within the amplified regions. The strategy was tested in a blinded fashion using 10 control viruses of each subtype (total, 30) and was found to be very effective. Once standardized, the genotyping method was used to identify the origin of the internal genes of 51 influenza A viruses isolated from humans in Hong Kong during and immediately following the 1997-1998 H5N1 outbreak. No avian-human or H1-H3 reassortants were detected. Less than 2% (6 of 486) of the RFLP analyses were inconclusive; all were due to point mutations within a restriction site. The technique was also used to characterize the internal genes of two avian H9N2 viruses isolated from children in Hong Kong during 1999.  (+info)

(2/3680) Infection of human airway epithelia with H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 influenza A virus strains.

Three subtypes of influenza A virus cause human disease: H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2. Although all result in respiratory illness, little is known about how these subtypes infect differentiated airway epithelia. Therefore, we assayed A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/Japan/305/57 (H2N2), and X31 (H3N2) influenza virus strains for binding and infection on fully differentiated primary cultures of airway epithelia isolated from human bronchus, grown on semiporous filters at an air-liquid interface. In this model system, viral infectivity was highest when virus was applied to the apical versus the basolateral surface; Japan was most infectious, followed by PR8. The X31 strain showed very low levels of infectivity. Confocal microscopy and fluorescence-resonance energy transfer studies indicated that Japan virus could enter and fuse with cellular membranes, while infection with X31 virions was greatly inhibited. Japan virus could also productively infect human trachea explant tissues. These data show that influenza viruses with SAalpha2,3Gal binding specificity, like Japan, productively infect differentiated human airway epithelia from the apical surface. These data are important to consider in the development of pseudotyped recombinant viral vectors for gene transfer to human airway epithelia for gene therapy.  (+info)

(3/3680) Antigenic and genetic characterization of swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses isolated from pneumonia patients in The Netherlands.

It is generally believed that pigs can serve as an intermediate host for the transmission of avian influenza viruses to humans or as mixing vessels for the generation of avian-human reassortant viruses. Here we describe the antigenic and genetic characterization of two influenza A (H1N1) viruses, which were isolated in The Netherlands from two patients who suffered from pneumonia. Both viruses proved to be antigenically and genetically similar to avian-like swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses which currently circulate in European pigs. It is concluded that European swine H1N1 viruses can infect humans directly, causing serious disease without the need for any reassortment event.  (+info)

(4/3680) Outbreak of influenza type A (H1N1) in Iporanga, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

From June to July 1999 an outbreak of acute respiratory illness occurred in the town of Iporanga. Out of a total of 4,837 inhabitants, 324 cases were notified to the Regional Surveillance Service. Influenza virus was isolated from 57.1% of the collected samples and 100% seroconversion to influenza A (H1N1) was obtained in 20 paired sera tested. The isolates were related to the A/Bayern/07/95 strain (H1N1). The percentages of cases notified during the outbreak were 28.4%, 29.0%, 20.7%, 6.2% and 15.7% in the age groups of 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and older than 20 years, respectively. The highest proportion of positives was observed among children younger than 14 years and no cases were notified in people older than 65 years, none of whom had been recently vaccinated against influenza. These findings suggest a significant vaccine protection against A/Bayern/7/95, the H1 component included in the 1997-98 influenza vaccine for elderly people. This viral strain is antigenically and genetically related to A/Beijing/262/95, the H1 component of the 1999 vaccine. Vaccines containing A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1) stimulated post-immunization hemagglutination inhibition antibodies equivalent in frequency and titre to both A/Beijing/262/95-like and A/Bayern/7/95-like viruses. Thus, this investigation demonstrates the effectiveness of vaccination against influenza virus in the elderly.  (+info)

(5/3680) Antigenic and genetic diversity among swine influenza A H1N1 and H1N2 viruses in Europe.

Three subtypes of influenza A viruses, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2, co-evolve in pigs in Europe. H1N2 viruses isolated from pigs in France and Italy since 1997 were closely related to the H1N2 viruses which emerged in the UK in 1994. In particular, the close relationship of the neuraminidases (NAs) of these viruses to the NA of a previous UK H3N2 swine virus indicated that they had not acquired the NA from H3N2 swine viruses circulating in continental Europe. Moreover, antigenic and genetic heterogeneity among the H1N2 viruses appeared to be due in part to multiple introductions of viruses from the UK. On the other hand, comparisons of internal gene sequences indicated genetic exchange between the H1N2 viruses and co-circulating H1N1 and/or H3N2 subtypes. Most genes of the earlier (1997-1998) H1N2 isolates were more closely related to those of a contemporary French H1N1 isolate, whereas the genes of later (1999-2000) isolates, including the HAs of some H1N2 viruses, were closely related to those of a distinct H1N1 antigenic variant which emerged in France in 1999. In contrast, an H3N2 virus isolated in France in 1999 was closely related antigenically and genetically to contemporary human A/Sydney/5/97-like viruses. These studies reveal interesting parallels between genetic and antigenic drift of H1N1 viruses in pig and human populations, and provide further examples of the contribution of genetic reassortment to the antigenic and genetic diversity of swine influenza viruses and the importance of the complement of internal genes in the evolution of epizootic strains.  (+info)

(6/3680) Frequency of amantadine-resistant influenza A viruses during two seasons featuring cocirculation of H1N1 and H3N2.

In two influenza seasons during which H1N1 and H3N2 cocirculated, resistance was more frequent in H3N2 strains than in H1N1 strains after amantadine treatment. Predominant amino acid substitutions in M2 protein occurred at position 31 (serine to asparagine) in H3N2 strains and at position 27 (valine to alanine) in H1N1 strains.  (+info)

(7/3680) Estimating efficacy of trivalent, cold-adapted, influenza virus vaccine (CAIV-T) against influenza A (H1N1) and B using surveillance cultures.

The authors report on a community-based, nonrandomized, open-label study, conducted during the 2000-2001 influenza season in Temple-Belton, Texas, of the protective effectiveness of trivalent, cold-adapted, influenza virus vaccine (CAIV-T) in children aged 18 months-18 years. The dominant circulating strains in 2000-2001 were influenza A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) and influenza B/Sichuan/379/99. Children had access to CAIV-T during the 1998-1999, 1999-2000, and 2000-2001 influenza seasons. The vaccine included influenza A/Sydney/5/97 (H3N2) and B/Beijing/184/93-like (B/Ann Arbor/l/94) strains in all three seasons. The vaccine included A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1) in 1998-1999 and 1999-2000, which was replaced by A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) in 2000-2001. When medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI) was used as the outcome, the protective effectiveness for children vaccinated in 2000 was 18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11, 25). Based on a combination of a validation sample of surveillance cultures and the MAARI outcome, protective efficacy against combined influenza A (H1N1) and B was 79% (95% CI: 51, 91). The efficacy estimate, after accounting for missing influenza culture status, against influenza A (H1N1) alone was 92% (95% CI: 42, 99) and against a new variant of influenza B alone was 66% (95% CI: 9, 87). CAIV-T provides substantial protection against a mixture of influenza A (H1N1) and B. Results demonstrate the powerful potential of using validation sets for outcomes in vaccine field studies.  (+info)

(8/3680) Comparison of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with hemagglutination inhibition assay for serodiagnosis of swine influenza virus (H1N1) infection.

A commercial indirect swine influenza virus (SIV) H1N1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared with the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay by testing 72 samples from experimentally infected pigs and 780 field samples of undefined SIV status. The HI assay was performed using SIV isolates A/Swine/IA/73 for H1N1 and A/Swine/IA/8548-1/98 for H3N2. The ELISA used an SIV isolated in 1988. The results showed that HI and ELISA detected an antibody in 11 and 6, respectively, of 72 serum samples collected from pigs experimentally infected with a 1992 SIV isolate (A/Swine/IA/40776/92). The presence of antibodies in these experimental samples was confirmed by HI tests in which all 72 samples were positive against the homologous virus, a more recent H1N1 SIV isolate (A/Swine/NVSL/01) supplied by National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Ames, Iowa, and a 1999 H1N1 isolate currently used in a commercial vaccine. On testing 780 field samples, an overall agreement of 85.5% was generated between the HI and ELISA. This study demonstrated that the ELISA is a useful serodiagnostic screening test at herd level for detecting swine antibodies against SIV. However, a new SIV isolate representing current SIV strains circulating in the field is needed to replace the older isolates used in the HI and ELISA to increase the test accuracy for serodiagnosis of SIV.  (+info)