(1/2435) A genomewide analysis provides evidence for novel linkages in inflammatory bowel disease in a large European cohort.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by a chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation, typically starting in early adulthood. IBD is subdivided into two subtypes, on the basis of clinical and histologic features: Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). Previous genomewide searches identified regions harboring susceptibility loci on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 7, 12, and 16. To expand our understanding of the genetic risk profile, we performed a 9-cM genomewide search for susceptibility loci in 268 families containing 353 affected sibling pairs. Previous linkages on chromosomes 12 and 16 were replicated, and the chromosome 4 linkage was extended in this sample. New suggestive evidence for autosomal linkages was observed on chromosomes 1, 6, 10, and 22, with LOD scores of 2.08, 2.07, 2.30, and 1.52, respectively. A maximum LOD score of 1.76 was observed on the X chromosome, for UC, which is consistent with the clinical association of IBD with Ullrich-Turner syndrome. The linkage finding on chromosome 6p is of interest, given the possible contribution of human leukocyte antigen and tumor necrosis-factor genes in IBD. This genomewide linkage scan, done with a large family cohort, has confirmed three previous IBD linkages and has provided evidence for five additional regions that may harbor IBD predisposition genes.  (+info)

(2/2435) Safety of long-term therapy with ciprofloxacin: data analysis of controlled clinical trials and review.

We reviewed the literature and the manufacturer's U.S. clinical data pool for safety data on long-term administration of ciprofloxacin (Bayer, West Haven, CT). Only controlled clinical trials including patients treated for >30 days were selected. We identified 636 patients by literature search and 413 patients in the Bayer U.S. database who fulfilled our search criteria; the average treatment duration for these patients was 130 and 80 days, respectively. Main indications for long-term therapy were osteomyelitis, skin and soft-tissue infection, prophylaxis for urinary tract infection, mycobacterial infections, and inflammatory bowel disease. Adverse events, premature discontinuation of therapy, and deaths occurred at a similar frequency in both treatment arms. Most adverse events occurred early during therapy with little increase in frequency over time. As with short-term therapy, gastrointestinal events were more frequent than central nervous system or skin reactions, but pseudomembranous colitis was not observed. No previously unknown adverse events were noted. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is tolerated as well as other antibiotics when extended courses of therapy are required.  (+info)

(3/2435) Evidence of T cell receptor beta-chain patterns in inflammatory and noninflammatory bowel disease states.

T cell activation, as defined by expression of relevant cell surface molecules, such as the interleukin-2 receptor (CD25), is increased in many chronic relapsing diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These T cells are generally activated through contact of their clonotypic T cell receptor (TCR) with a peptide antigen presented by a major histocompatibility complex molecule. One of the putative antigenic contact sites for the TCR is the third complementarity determining region (CDR3) of the TCR beta-chain variable region (TCRBV). Therefore, analysis of the TCRBV CDR3 provides insight into the diversity of antigens encountered by a given T cell population. This study evaluated the TCRBV CDR3 usage of the activated intestinal lymphocytes from human subjects with IBD, diverticulitis (inflammatory control), and a normal tissue control. Public patterns, as demonstrated by shared TCRBV CDR3 amino acid sequences of activated intestinal T cell subpopulations, were observed. In particular, a public pattern of TCRBV22, a conserved valine in the fifth position, and use of TCRBJ2S1 or TCRBJ2S5 was present in three of four Crohn's disease subjects while not present in the ulcerative colitis subjects. However, the private patterns of TCRBV CDR3 region amino acid sequences were far more striking and easily demonstrated in all individuals studied, including a normal noninflammatory control. Thus we conclude that selective antigenic pressures are prevalent among an individual's activated intestinal lymphocytes.  (+info)

(4/2435) Colitis-inducing potency of CD4+ T cells in immunodeficient, adoptive hosts depends on their state of activation, IL-12 responsiveness, and CD45RB surface phenotype.

We studied the induction, severity and rate of progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) induced in SCID mice by the adoptive transfer of low numbers of the following purified BALB/c CD4+ T cell subsets: 1) unfractionated, peripheral, small (resting), or large (activated) CD4+ T cells; 2) fractionated, peripheral, small, or large, CD45RBhigh or CD45RBlow CD4+ T cells; and 3) peripheral IL-12-unresponsive CD4+ T cells from STAT-4-deficient mice. The adoptive transfer into SCID host of comparable numbers of CD4+ T cells was used to assess the colitis-inducing potency of these subsets. Small CD45RBhigh CD4+ T lymphocytes and activated CD4+ T blasts induced early (6-12 wk posttransfer) and severe disease, while small resting and unfractionated CD4+ T cells or CD45RBlow T lymphocytes induced a late-onset disease 12-16 wk posttransfer. SCID mice transplanted with STAT-4-/- CD4+ T cells showed a late-onset IBD manifest > 20 wk posttransfer. In SCID mice with IBD transplanted with IL-12-responsive CD4+ T cells, the colonic lamina propria CD4+ T cells showed a mucosa-seeking memory/effector CD45RBlow Th1 phenotype abundantly producing IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. In SCID mice transplanted with IL-12-unresponsive STAT-4-/- CD4+ T cells, the colonic lamina propria, mesenteric lymph node, and splenic CD4+ T cells produced very little IFN-gamma but abundant levels of TNF-alpha. The histopathologic appearance of colitis in all transplanted SCID mice was similar. These data indicate that CD45RBhigh and CD45RBlow, IL-12-responsive and IL-12-unresponsive CD4+ T lymphocytes and lymphoblasts have IBD-inducing potential though of varying potency.  (+info)

(5/2435) Review article: the potential role of nitric oxide in chronic inflammatory bowel disorders.

The aetiology of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases-ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease-as well as 'microscopic colitis'-both collagenous (COC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)-remains unknown. Autoimmune mechanisms, cytokine polymorphism, commensal bacteria, infectious agents and vascular impairment have all been proposed as playing important roles in the pathogenesis of this spectrum of diseases. A variety of proinflammatory mediators, including tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta, interferon gamma, leukotriene B4 and platelet activating factor, promote the adherence of phagocytes to the venular endothelium and extravasation of these cells into the colonic mucosa. In addition to large amounts of nitric oxide (NO), injurious peroxynitrite may be formed in the epithelium by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is considered to elicit cytotoxicity by the generation of superoxide with reduced L-arginine availability. In active ulcerative colitis, and to a lesser extent in Crohn's disease, a greatly increased production of NO has been demonstrated by indirect and direct measurements. Surprisingly, even higher rates of production have been observed in COC-a condition which is never associated with injurious inflammation. The latter observation favours the notion that NO promotes mucosal integrity. Further evidence for a protective role of NO in chronic inflammatory bowel disorders is provided by the observation of increased susceptibility to the induction of experi mental colitis in 'knock-out' mice deficient in iNOS. Selective inhibitors of iNOS activity, as well as topical L-arginine, may therefore prove beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease by reducing the production of superoxide by iNOS, while only the former option may be expected to reduce diarrhoea in chronic inflammatory bowel disorders. Clearly, further experimental work needs to be done before testing topical L-arginine in human inflammatory bowel disease.  (+info)

(6/2435) Glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in inactive inflammatory bowel disease.

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mediator concentration was found to be increased in active inflammatory bowel disease, and this could be related to an insulin-resistant state. Moreover, glucocorticoids, which are widely used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, are notoriously related to insulin resistance. AIM: To measure body composition, whole body glucose uptake and oxidation in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients with inactive disease. METHODS: All patients had clinical, ultrasound and biochemical assessment. Body composition was determined by isotopic dilution technique; basal metabolic rate and substrate oxidation were measured by indirect calorimetry. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Ten patients with inactive Crohn's disease (five males, aged 31.1 +/- 7.0 years) and 10 patients with inactive ulcerative colitis (five males, aged 33.4 +/- 8.8 years) participated in the study. Forty healthy subjects, matched for age and height were used as a control group. RESULTS: Crohn's disease patients showed lower BMI (P < 0.001), fat mass (P < 0.05) and respiratory quotient (P < 0.001) values compared to both ulcerative colitis and control subjects. No difference in peripheral glucose uptake (micromol/kg/min) was found between groups (respectively 42.5 +/- 6.78 in Crohn's disease, 40.2 +/- 8.00 in ulcerative colitis and 41.4 +/- 10.8 in control subjects). Glucose storage and oxidation did not differ between groups. CONCLUSION: Our data showed that inflammatory bowel disease patients in a remission phase of the disease activity had a whole body glucose uptake and oxidation similar to those of control subjects, probably due to fat-free mass preservation and low blood and tissue cytokine concentration.  (+info)

(7/2435) Antioxidant effects of aminosalicylates and potential new drugs for inflammatory bowel disease: assessment in cell-free systems and inflamed human colorectal biopsies.

BACKGROUND: The therapeutic efficacy of 5-aminosalicylic acid in inflammatory bowel disease may be related to its antioxidant properties. AIM: To compare in vitro the antioxidant effects of conventional drugs (5-aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroids, metronidazole), with new aminosalicylates (4-aminosalicylic acid, balsalazide) and other potential therapies (ascorbate, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, verapamil). METHODS: Compounds were assessed for efficacy in reducing the in vitro production of reactive oxygen species by cell-free systems (using xanthine/xanthine oxidase, with or without myeloperoxidase) and by colorectal biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis using luminol-amplified chemiluminescence. RESULTS: 5-aminosalicylic acid and balsalazide were more potent antioxidants than 4-aminosalicylic acid or N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid in cell-free systems. 5-aminosalicylic acid (20 mM) and balsalazide (20 mM) inhibited rectal biopsy chemiluminescence by 93% and 100%, respectively, compared with only 59% inhibition by 4-aminosalicylic acid (20 mM). Hydrocortisone, metronidazole and verapamil had no significant effect on chemiluminescence in any system. Ascorbate (20 mM) inhibited chemiluminescence by 100% in cell-free systems and by 60% in rectal biopsies. N-acetyl cysteine (10 mM), and both oxidized and reduced glutathione (10 mM), completely inhibited chemiluminescence in cell-free systems, but not with rectal biopsies. CONCLUSIONS: The antioxidant effects of compounds varies between cell-free systems and inflamed colorectal biopsies. The effect of drugs on the chemiluminescence produced by these two assay systems is useful for screening potentially new antioxidant treatments for inflammatory bowel disease. Ascorbate seems worth further study as a novel therapy.  (+info)

(8/2435) Enhanced production of monocyte chemotactic protein 3 in inflammatory bowel disease mucosa.

BACKGROUND: The beta chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3) has chemoattractant and activating capabilities in monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. AIMS: To investigate MCP-3 expression in inflammatory conditions of the human intestinal mucosa. PATIENTS: Forty five colon biopsy specimens from 18 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; 16 specimens from inflamed and 10 from non-inflamed areas) and 19 control patients were examined. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used for MCP-3 detection in tissue sections. Intestinal epithelial cell lines (HT-29, Caco-2, T-84) were stimulated with interleukin (IL) 1beta, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and examined for MCP-3 protein and mRNA expression using immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR, respectively. RESULTS: In tissue sections, MCP-3 protein was detected predominantly in epithelial cells, both in patients with IBD and in controls. MCP-3 staining was particularly pronounced at sites of active mucosal inflammation. The intensity of MCP-3 staining was positively correlated with the extent of epithelial destruction. In intestinal epithelial cell lines, MCP-3 mRNA was expressed, whereas MCP-3 protein was not consistently detected. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that MCP-3 protein is present in normal and inflamed intestinal tissue. MCP-3 production is substantially enhanced in areas of active inflammation, suggesting an immunoregulatory role of MCP-3 in intestinal inflammation.  (+info)