Presence of an encephalomyocarditis virus internal ribosome entry site sequence in avian infectious bronchitis virus defective RNAs abolishes rescue by helper virus.
Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) defective RNAs (D-RNAs) have been used for the expression of heterologous genes in a helper-virus-dependent expression system. The heterologous genes were expressed under the control of an IBV transcription-associated sequence (TAS) derived from gene 5 of IBV Beaudette. However, coronavirus D-RNA expression vectors display an inherent instability following serial passage with helper virus, resulting in the eventual loss of the heterologous genes. The use of the picornavirus encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) sequence to initiate gene translation was investigated as an alternative method to the coronavirus-mediated TAS-controlled heterologous gene expression system. IBV D-RNAs containing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene, under EMCV IRES control, were assessed for IRES-mediated CAT protein translation. CAT protein was detected from T7-derived IBV D-RNA transcripts in a cell-free protein synthesis system and in situ in avian chick kidney (CK) cells following T7-derived D-RNA synthesis from a recombinant fowlpox virus expressing the bacteriophage T7 DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. However, CAT protein was not detected in CK cells from IRES-containing IBV D-RNAs, in which the IRES-CAT construct was inserted at two different positions within the D-RNA, in the presence of helper IBV. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the IRES-containing D-RNAs were not rescued on serial passage with helper virus, indicating that the EMCV IRES sequence had a detrimental effect on IBV D-RNA rescue. (+info)
Host-dependent type 1 cytokine responses driven by inactivated viruses may fail to default in the absence of IL-12 or IFN-alpha/beta.
Replicating viruses generally induce type 1 immune responses, with high interferon (IFN)-gamma levels and antibodies of the IgG2a isotype. In the present study we demonstrate the intrinsic ability of non-replicating virions to induce comparable immune responses in the notable absence of any adjuvant. Injection of inactivated pseudorabies virus, an alphaherpesvirus, by various routes into mice resulted in the generation of T helper (Th) 1 type immune response. Co-delivery of inactivated pseudorabies herpesvirus (iPRV) with protein redirected IgG1-dominated tetanus toxoid-specific responses towards an IgG1/IgG2a balanced response. Also inactivated preparations of viruses from the paramyxo- (Newcastle disease virus), rhabdo- (rabies virus), corona- (infectious bronchitis virus) and reovirus (avian reovirus) families led to IgG2a antibody responses; however, the genetic background of the host did result in considerable variation. Because disrupted virions also induced type 1 immune responses, we conclude that structural elements of virions inherently contribute to IFN-gamma-dependent isotype switching by inactivated viruses. Strikingly, immunizations in gene-disrupted mice showed that a functional IFN-alpha/beta, IFN-gamma or interleukin (IL)-12 pathway was not required for the generation of a polarized Th1 type immune response initiated by inactivated virus particles. These findings have a bearing on the understanding of immune responsiveness to virus structures and the design of vaccines containing virus components. (+info)
Intracellular targeting signals contribute to localization of coronavirus spike proteins near the virus assembly site.
Coronavirus budding at the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) requires accumulation of the viral envelope proteins at this point in the secretory pathway. Here we demonstrate that the spike (S) protein from the group 3 coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) contains a canonical dilysine endoplasmic reticulum retrieval signal (-KKXX-COOH) in its cytoplasmic tail. This signal can retain a chimeric reporter protein in the ERGIC and when mutated allows transport of the full-length S protein as well as the chimera to the plasma membrane. Interestingly, the IBV S protein also contains a tyrosine-based endocytosis signal in its cytoplasmic tail, suggesting that any S protein that escapes the ERGIC will be rapidly endocytosed when it reaches the plasma membrane. We also identified a novel dibasic motif (-KXHXX-COOH) in the cytoplasmic tails of S proteins from group 1 coronaviruses and from the newly identified coronavirus implicated in severe acute respiratory syndrome. This dibasic motif also retained a reporter protein in the ERGIC, similar to the dilysine motif in IBV S. The cytoplasmic tails of S proteins from group 2 coronaviruses lack an intracellular localization signal. The inherent differences in S-protein trafficking could point to interesting variations in pathogenesis of coronaviruses, since increased levels of surface S protein could promote syncytium formation and direct cell-to-cell spread of the infection. (+info)
Comparison of four regions in the replicase gene of heterologous infectious bronchitis virus strains.
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) produces six subgenomic (sg) mRNAs, each containing a 64 nucleotide (nt) leader sequence, derived from the 5' end of the genome by a discontinuous process. Several putative functional domains such as a papain-like proteinase (PL(pro)), main protease (M(pro)), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and RNA helicase encoded by the replicase gene are important for virus replication. We have sequenced four regions of the replicase genes corresponding to the 5'-terminal sequence, PL(pro), M(pro), and RdRp domains from 20 heterologous IBV strains, and compared them with previously published coronavirus sequences. All the coronavirus 5'-termini and PL(pro) domains were divergent, unlike the M(pro) and the RdRp domains that were highly conserved with 28% and 48% conserved residues, respectively. Among IBV strains, the 5' untranslated region including the leader sequence was highly conserved (>94% identical); whereas, the N-terminal coding region and the PL(pro) domains were highly variable ranging from 84.6% to 100%, and 77.6% to 100% identity, respectively. The IBV M(pro) and RdRp domains were highly conserved with 82.7% and 92.7% conserved residues, respectively. The BJ strain was the most different from other IBVs in all four regions of the replicase. Phylogeny-based clustering based on replicase genes was identical to the antigen-based classification of coronaviruses into three groups. However, the IBV strain classification based on replicase gene domains did not correlate with that of the type-specific antigenic groups. The replicase gene sequences of many IBVs recovered from infected chickens were identical to those of vaccine viruses irrespective of serotype, suggesting that either there has been an exchange of genetic material among vaccine and field isolates or that there is a convergent evolution to a specific replicase genotype. There was no correlation between the genotype of any region of the replicase gene and pathotype, suggesting that the replicase is not the sole determinant of IBV pathogenicity. (+info)
Nephropathogenesis of chickens experimentally infected with various strains of infectious bronchitis virus.
Four-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were inoculated by eyedrop with four different strains (Gray, JMK, CV56b, and Wolgemuth) of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Birds were monitored clinically and euthanatized at 1, 4, 7, and 14 days postinfection and tissues were collected for virus isolation, histopathologic examination, in situ hybridization (ISH), and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Clinical disease was severe in chickens infected with Wolgemuth, but no overt disease was observed with the other strains. Virus was isolated from the kidneys of chickens infected with the Gray-, CV56b-, and Wolgemuth-strains of IBV. Histologically, interstitial nephritis was evident in chickens infected with these same 3 strains. However, viral nucleic acid and antigen were detected only with Wolgemuth-infected kidneys by ISH and IHC. These results indicate that the pathological changes in kidneys from chickens infected with Gray and CV56b may not have resulted from the cytolytic action of the virus. (+info)
A single amino acid mutation in the spike protein of coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus hampers its maturation and incorporation into virions at the nonpermissive temperature.
The spike (S) glycoprotein of coronavirus is responsible for receptor binding and membrane fusion. A number of variants with deletions and mutations in the S protein have been isolated from naturally and persistently infected animals and tissue cultures. Here, we report the emergence and isolation of two temperature sensitive (ts) mutants and a revertant in the process of cold-adaptation of coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) to a monkey kidney cell line. The complete sequences of wild type (wt) virus, two ts mutants, and the revertant were compared and variations linked to phenotypes were mapped. A single amino acid reversion (L294-to-Q) in the S protein is sufficient to abrogate the ts phenotype. Interestingly, unlike wt virus, the revertant grows well at and below 32 degrees C, the permissive temperature, as it carries other mutations in multiple genes that might be associated with the cold-adaptation phenotype. If the two ts mutants were allowed to enter cells at 32 degrees C, the S protein was synthesized, core-glycosylated and at least partially modified at 40 degrees C. However, compared with wt virus and the revertant, no infectious particles of these ts mutants were assembled and released from the ts mutant-infected cells at 40 degrees C. Evidence presented demonstrated that the Q294-to-L294 mutation, located at a highly conserved domain of the S1 subunit, might hamper processing of the S protein to a matured 180-kDa, endo-glycosidase H-resistant glycoprotein and the translocation of the protein to the cell surface. Consequently, some essential functions of the S protein, including mediation of cell-to-cell fusion and its incorporation into virions, were completely abolished. (+info)
Recombinant infectious bronchitis coronavirus Beaudette with the spike protein gene of the pathogenic M41 strain remains attenuated but induces protective immunity.
We have replaced the ectodomain of the spike (S) protein of the Beaudette strain (Beau-R; apathogenic for Gallus domesticus chickens) of avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) with that from the pathogenic M41 strain to produce recombinant IBV BeauR-M41(S). We have previously shown that this changed the tropism of the virus in vitro (R. Casais, B. Dove, D. Cavanagh, and P. Britton, J. Virol. 77:9084-9089, 2003). Herein we have assessed the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of BeauR-M41(S). There were no consistent differences in pathogenicity between the recombinant BeauR-M41(S) and its apathogenic parent Beau-R (based on snicking, nasal discharge, wheezing, watery eyes, rales, and ciliostasis in trachea), and both replicated poorly in trachea and nose compared to M41; the S protein from the pathogenic M41 had not altered the apathogenic nature of Beau-R. Both Beau-R and BeauR-M41(S) induced protection against challenge with M41 as assessed by absence of recovery of challenge virus and nasal exudate. With regard to snicking and ciliostasis, BeauR-M41(S) induced greater protection (seven out of nine chicks [77%]; assessed by ciliostasis) than Beau-R (one out of nine; 11%) but less than M41 (100%). The greater protection induced by BeauR-M41(S) against M41 may be related to the ectodomain of the spike protein of Beau-R differing from that of M41 by 4.1%; a small number of epitopes on the S protein may play a disproportionate role in the induction of immunity. The results are promising for the prospects of S-gene exchange for IBV vaccine development. (+info)
Mass spectroscopic characterization of the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus nucleoprotein and elucidation of the role of phosphorylation in RNA binding by using surface plasmon resonance.
Phosphorylation of the coronavirus nucleoprotein (N protein) has been predicted to play a role in RNA binding. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined the kinetics of RNA binding between nonphosphorylated and phosphorylated infectious bronchitis virus N protein with nonviral and viral RNA by surface plasmon resonance (Biacore). Mass spectroscopic analysis of N protein identified phosphorylation sites that were proximal to RNA binding domains. Kinetic analysis, by surface plasmon resonance, indicated that nonphosphorylated N protein bound with the same affinity to viral RNA as phosphorylated N protein. However, phosphorylated N protein bound to viral RNA with a higher binding affinity than nonviral RNA, suggesting that phosphorylation of N protein determined the recognition of virus RNA. The data also indicated that a known N protein binding site (involved in transcriptional regulation) consisting of a conserved core sequence present near the 5' end of the genome (in the leader sequence) functioned by promoting high association rates of N protein binding. Further analysis of the leader sequence indicated that the core element was not the only binding site for N protein and that other regions functioned to promote high-affinity binding. (+info)