Emergence of a coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus mutant with a truncated 3b gene: functional characterization of the 3b protein in pathogenesis and replication.
The subgenomic RNA 3 of IBV has been shown to be a tricistronic mRNA, encoding three products in IBV-infected cells. To explore if the least expressed ORF, ORF 3b, which encodes a nonstructural protein, is evolutionarily conserved and functionally indispensable for viral propagation in cultured cells, the Beaudette strain of IBV was propagated in chicken embryonated eggs for three passages and then adapted to a monkey kidney cell line, Vero. The 3b gene of passage 3 in embryonated eggs and passages 7, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 50, and 65 in Vero cells were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The results showed that viral RNA extracted from passages 35, 50, and 65 contained a single A insertion in a 6A stretch of the 3b gene between nucleotides 24075 and 24080, whereas the early passages carried the normal 3b gene. This insertion resulted in a frameshift event and therefore, if expressed, a C-terminally truncated protein. We showed that the frameshifting product, cloned in a plasmid, was expressed in vitro and in cells transfected with the mutant construct. The normal product of the 3b gene is 64 amino acids long, whereas the frameshifting product is 34 amino acids long with only 17 homogeneous amino acid residues at the N-terminal half. Immunofluorescent studies revealed that the normal 3b protein was localized to the nucleus and the truncated product showed a "free" distribution pattern, indicating that the C-terminal portion of 3b was responsible for its nuclear localization. Comparison of the complete genome sequences (27.6 kb) of isolates p20c22 and p36c12 (from passages 20 and 36, respectively) revealed that p36c12 contains three amino acid substitutions, two in the 195-kDa protein (encoded by gene 1) and one in the S protein, in addition to the frameshifting 3b product. Further characterization of the two isolates demonstrated that p36c12 showed growth advantage over p20c22 in both Vero cells and chicken embryos and was more virulent in chicken embryos than p20c22. These results suggest that the 3b gene product is not essential for the replication of IBV. (+info)
Recombinant avian infectious bronchitis virus expressing a heterologous spike gene demonstrates that the spike protein is a determinant of cell tropism.
A recombinant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), BeauR-M41(S), was generated using our reverse genetics system (R. Casais, V. Thiel, S. G. Siddell, D. Cavanagh, and P. Britton, J. Virol. 75:12359-12369, 2001), in which the ectodomain region of the spike gene from IBV M41-CK replaced the corresponding region of the IBV Beaudette genome. BeauR-M41(S) acquired the same cell tropism phenotype as IBV M41-CK in four different cell types, demonstrating that the IBV spike glycoprotein is a determinant of cell tropism. (+info)
Expression of immunogenic S1 glycoprotein of infectious bronchitis virus in transgenic potatoes.
The expression of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 glycoprotein in potatoes and its immunogenicity in mice and chickens were investigated. Potato plants were genetically transformed with a cDNA construct encoding the IBV S1 glycoprotein with the Agrobacterium system. Genomic DNA and mRNA analyses of the transformed plantlets confirmed the integration of the foreign cDNA into the potato genome, as well as its transcription. Mice and chickens vaccinated with the expressed IBV S1 glycoprotein produced antibodies that neutralized IBV infectivity. After three immunizations, vaccinated chickens were completely protected from virulent IBV infection. These results demonstrate that transgenic potatoes expressing IBV S1 glycoprotein can be used as a source of recombinant antigen for vaccine production. (+info)
The cytoplasmic tails of infectious bronchitis virus E and M proteins mediate their interaction.
Virus-like particle (VLP) formation by the coronavirus E and M proteins suggests that interactions between these proteins play a critical role in coronavirus assembly. We studied interactions between the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) E and M proteins using in vivo crosslinking and VLP assembly assays. We show that IBV E and M can be crosslinked to each other in IBV-infected and transfected cells, indicating that they interact. The cytoplasmic tails of both proteins are important for this interaction. We also examined the ability of the mutant and chimeric E and M proteins to form VLPs. IBV M proteins that are missing portions of their cytoplasmic tails or transmembrane regions were not able to support VLP formation, regardless of their ability to be crosslinked to IBV E. Interactions between the E and M proteins and the membrane bilayer are likely to play an important role in VLP formation and virus budding. (+info)
Typing of field isolates of infectious bronchitis virus based on the sequence of the hypervariable region in the S1 gene.
A universal primer set was developed that amplifies a region covering hypervariable region (HVR) 1 and HVR 2 in the S1 gene of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The universality of this primer set was confirmed by testing the reference strains of different serotypes or variants of the IBV present in the United States. An approximately 450-bp region containing HVR 1 and HVR 2 of 7 untyped field isolates obtained in 1999 and 2000 was amplified. Direct sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis on that region allowed us to type those field isolates that were not typable by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Furthermore, it was found that typing by phylogenetic analysis of that region correlates with virus neutralization results. Together with RT-PCR and RFLP, this method will serve as a fast typing method for IBV diagnosis. (+info)
Epithelia-damaging virus infections affect vitamin A status in chickens.
The effect of infection with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and reovirus (RV) on vitamin A status was investigated in chickens with a normal or marginal intake of vitamin A. At the age of 4 wk, chickens were infected with either IBV or RV, primarily affecting the respiratory or intestinal tract, respectively. Both viruses lowered plasma retinol levels significantly. The effect was more pronounced in chickens fed a diet marginally deficient in vitamin A than in those fed a diet adequate in vitamin A. Concentrations of retinol-binding protein, transthyretin and albumin in RV-infected chickens were also significantly lower than in noninfected chickens fed the same diets; in chickens infected with IBV, there was no effect. These results suggest that the reduced vitamin A status of IBV-infected chickens could be attributed to increased rate of utilization by tissues. In RV infection, this mechanism could be involved but impaired absorption of nutrients (including vitamin A) and direct loss of nutrients via the intestinal tract could also be important. (+info)
Rapid detection and identification of avian infectious bronchitis virus.
A rapid and sensitive method for the detection and unambiguous typing of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is described. RNA was isolated from IBV-infected allantoic fluid and was transcribed into cDNA. This cDNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. The polymerase chain reaction products were subsequently analyzed on an agarose gel. The presence of IBV-specific RNA in the allantoic fluid then allowed the amplification of a 438-bp DNA fragment from the nucleocapsid (N) gene. For the typing of IBV isolates, we used amplified double-stranded DNA as a template in a sequencing reaction. We report 360 bases of the N gene of 18 IBV isolates. The sequence of the N gene was different between serologically indistinguishable IBV strains and may be a valuable tool in epidemiologic studies. A phylogenetic tree that was based on the sequences obtained did not agree with trees that were based on other parts of the sequence, illustrating the high frequency of recombination between IBV strains. (+info)
Location of antigenic sites defined by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies on the S1 avian infectious bronchitis virus glycopolypeptide.
Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies directed against five antigenic sites on the spike (S) S1 glycopolypeptide of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were used to select neutralization-resistant variants of the virus. By comparing the nucleotide sequence of such variants with the sequence of the IBV parent strain, we located five antigenic sites on the amino acid sequence of the S1 glycopolypeptide. The variants had mutations within three regions corresponding to amino acid residues 24 to 61, 132 to 149 and 291 to 398 of the S1 glycopolypeptide. The location of three overlapping antigenic sites on the IBV spike protein was similar to the location of antigenic sites on the spike protein of other coronaviruses. (+info)