Neonatal hypoglycaemia in Nepal 1. Prevalence and risk factors.
AIMS: To measure the prevalence of hypoglycaemia among newborn infants in Nepal, where classic risk factors prevail, and to evaluate their importance. METHODS: A cross sectional study was done of 578 term newborn infants aged 0 to 48 hours on the postnatal wards of a government maternity hospital in Kathmandu, with unmatched case-control analysis of risk factors for moderate hypoglycaemia (less than 2.0 mmol /l). RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty eight (41%) newborn infants had mild (less than 2.6 mmol/l) and 66 (11%) moderate hypoglycaemia. Significant independent risk factors for moderate hypoglycaemia included postmaturity (OR 2.62), birthweight under 2.5 kg (OR 2.11), small head size (OR 0.59), infant haemoglobin >210 g/l (OR 2.77), and raised maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (OR 3.08). Feeding delay increased the risk of hypoglycaemia at age 12-24 hours (OR 4.09). Disproportionality affected the risk of moderate hypoglycaemia: lower with increasing ponderal index (OR 0.29), higher as the head circumference to birthweight ratio increased (OR 1.41). Regression expressing blood glucose concentration as a continuous variable revealed associations with infant haemoglobin (negative) and maternal haemoglobin (positive), but no other textbook risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal hypoglycaemia is more common in a developing country, but may not be a clinical problem unless all fuel availability is reduced. Some textbook risk factors, such as hypothermia, disappear after controlling for confounding variables. Early feeding could reduce moderate hypoglycaemia in the second 12 hours of life. The clinical significance of raised maternal TSH and maternal anaemia as prenatal risk factors requires further research. (+info
Blood coagulation status of small-for-dates and postmature infants.
In a prospective study of blood coagulation status in small-for-dates and postmature infants there was often evidence of intravascular coagulation. Abnormal coagulation findings correlated with the degree of growth retardation and with the degree of postmaturity. Macroscopical placental infarction and neonatal polycythaemia were associated with coagulation abnormalities; asphyxia, however, was not. Intravascular coagulation may be an additional hazard to small-for-dates and postmature infants. (+info
Physical growth in twins, postmature and small-for-dates children.
From 16 955 livebirths, which occurred throughout the United Kingdom in April 1970 during the British Births Survey, three groups of children (multiple births, postmature, and small-for-dates) were selected together with a 10% random sample. This report is concerned with the height, weight, and head circimference measruements at 22 months of age. The babies that were heavier at birth showed diminished growth velocity and the small babies catch-up growth. At 22 months the pattern of distribution of weight was much closer to the normal than that of the babies' birthweights. Differences, however, did remain. (+info
Arylsulfatase-A in umbilical cord blood: gestational age and mode of delivery do not influence enzyme activity.
The possibility of using umbilical cord blood for transplantation in several enzyme deficiencies has received increasing attention because of the availability of cord blood, the reduced incidence of post-transplantation complications, such as graft-versus-host disease and the possible accomplishment of good corrective results following transplantation, even in cases of greater HLA disparity. The use of hematopoietic stem cells from unrelated donors is even more highly recommended for the treatment of inherited enzyme deficiencies, because it might reduce the risk of the transplanted cells originating from a carrier of the defect, which might have an inadequate corrective ability. Our study was designed to elucidate whether the gestational age and mode of delivery influences the arylsulfatase-A activity in the umbilical cord blood. Enzyme activities proved to be similar in the four populations studied (full-term normal spontaneous vaginal delivery, full-term caesarean section, preterm normal spontaneous vaginal delivery and preterm caesarean section). Therefore, umbilical cord blood samples seem to be suitable for transplantation in metachromatic leukodystrophy, regardless of gestational age and mode of delivery. Moreover, our results are the first published data on normal values for arylsulfatase-A activity in human umbilical cord blood. (+info
Postmaturity in a genetic subtype of schizophrenia.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether postmaturity (gestation > 41 weeks), small for gestational age (SGA), and other pregnancy and birth complications that may elevate risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, are associated with elevated risk for schizophrenia in 22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22qDS), a genetic subtype of schizophrenia. METHOD: Antepartum and intrapartum features were examined in 20 adults with 22qDS-schizophrenia and three comparison groups: newborn encephalopathy (n = 164) and healthy newborn controls (n = 400) from Badawi et al.'s (Br Med J 1998, 317: 1549) study, and 16 non-psychotic 22qDS adults (22qDS-NP). RESULTS: Postmaturity (OR 13.0, 95% CI 3.95, 42.77; P < 0.001) and SGA (OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.23, 10.5; P = 0.03) were more prevalent in 22qDS-SZ than controls. Postmaturity was non-significantly more prevalent in 22qDS-SZ than in newborn encephalopathy (P = 0.06) or 22qDS-NP (P = 0.2). SGA showed similar rates in the two 22qDS groups and newborn encephalopathy, but was more prevalent in 22qDS-NP than controls (P = 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that postmaturity may be associated with expression of schizophrenia in a 22qDS subtype of schizophrenia. SGA may be a non-specific marker of neurodevelopmental disturbance. (+info
Birth weight discordance in spontaneous versus induced twins: impact on perinatal outcome.
PURPOSE: To compare the rate of birth weight discordance and perinatal outcome of twin pregnancies after assisted reproduction with that of spontaneous twins. METHOD: A total of 12,920 deliveries were analyzed retrospectively. Seventy-five twin pregnancies after ART were compared to the 94 spontaneous counterparts. Birth weight discordance was defined as a difference of 20% or more. RESULTS: Discordance rate was elevated (25.3% vs. 17.0%) among ART twins. SGA was increased and NICU admission was more frequent in discordant group. Unlike-sexed twins were more prevalent (73.7% vs. 37.5%) among discordants after ART. CONCLUSIONS: ART can increase discordance rate which can elevate perinatal risk. (+info
Effect of in utero growth retardation on lung function at follow-up of prematurely born infants.
The aim of the study was to determine if prematurely born children who had suffered intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) had more severe lung function abnormalities than those born an appropriate weight for gestational age (AGA). Analysis of the lung function results of 119 infants (median (range) gestational age of 30 (23-35) weeks) was undertaken. In total, 31 of the infants had suffered IUGR and were born small for gestational age (SGA). Functional residual capacity and airways resistance (Raw) were measured at a median post-natal age of 10 (6-24) months. Specific airway conductance (sGaw) was calculated from thoracic gas volume and Raw. The SGA children were born at a greater gestational age and had a lower body weight at testing than the AGA children. Raw and sGaw differed between the SGA and AGA children. Regression analysis demonstrated that lung volumes were significantly related to body weight at testing, Raw was related to IUGR, maternal smoking and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and sGaw to maternal smoking. In conclusion, these results suggest that prematurely born infants who have suffered intra-uterine growth retardation may be at increased risk of impaired lung function at follow-up. (+info
Relationship between cerebroplacental Doppler ratio and birth weight in postdates pregnancies.
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between cerebroplacental Doppler impedance index and birth weight in postdates pregnancies, and to evaluate the use of a combination of Doppler parameters and ultrasound biometry in the prediction of large-for-gestational age (LGA) fetuses at 41 weeks of gestation. METHODS: The pulsatility indices of the umbilical (UA-PI) and middle cerebral (MCA-PI) arteries, the cerebroplacental pulsatility index ratio (CPR) and the estimated fetal weight (EFW) were obtained in a cohort of 181 ultrasound-dated pregnancies at 41 weeks' gestation, 2 days before induction of delivery. A regression equation was established and the correlation between umbilical artery impedance and different birth-weight centile groups was determined. A receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve was used to compare prediction of LGA fetuses using biometry alone with that using biometry and UA-PI. RESULTS: UA-PI was inversely related to EFW (Spearson's correlation coefficient rho = -0.28, P < 0.001). Logistic regression showed an independent contribution of UA-PI to the birth-weight estimation (birth weight = 1356.8 - 232.0 x UA-PI + 0.65 x EFW). On ROC curve analysis, the prediction of LGA with the regression equation was comparable to that using ultrasound biometry alone. CONCLUSION: UA-PI was inversely correlated to EFW, but the combination of ultrasound biometry and UA-PI compared with biometry alone showed similar prediction of LGA fetuses in postdates pregnancies. Further prospective trials on larger populations or groups with a higher prevalence of LGA fetuses would be needed to validate the use of the new formula. (+info