Age of introduction of complementary foods and growth of term, low-birth-weight, breast-fed infants: a randomized intervention study in Honduras.
BACKGROUND: The optimal age at which to introduce complementary foods is a topic of considerable debate. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate this issue in a nutritionally vulnerable population in Honduras. DESIGN: Mothers of low-birth-weight (1500-2500 g) term (ie, small-for-gestational-age) infants were recruited in the hospital and assisted with exclusive breast-feeding during the first 4 mo. At 4 mo, mothers were randomly assigned to either continue exclusive breast-feeding to 6 mo (EBF; n = 59) or to feed complementary solid foods (jarred rice cereal, chicken, and fruit and vegetables) twice daily from 4 to 6 mo while continuing to breast-feed at their initial frequency (SF; n = 60). At 4 and 6 mo, breast milk and total energy intake were measured for a nonrandom subsample (those who could stay overnight in a central unit: 32 EBF and 31 SF). RESULTS: At 4 mo, breast milk intake in the subsample was not significantly different between groups (EBF: 729 +/- 135 g/d; SF: 683 +/- 151 g/d: P >0.2); from 4 to 6 mo it increased (by 28 g/d) in the EBF group but decreased (by 39 g/d) in the SF group (P < 0.005). Nonetheless, total energy intake (including solid foods) increased more from 4 to 6 mo in the SF than in the EBF group. However, there were no significant differences between groups in weight or length gain during the intervention or subsequently (6-12 mo). CONCLUSION: There was no growth advantage of complementary feeding of small-for-gestational-age, breast-fed infants between 4 and 6 mo of age. (+info)
The Narangwal Nutrition Study: a summary review.
Between April 1968 and May 1973 the department of International Health of The Johns Hopkins University carried out investigations into the interactions of malnutrition and infection and their effects on preschool child growth, morbidity and mortality in 10 villages of Punjab, North India. Base line surveys before the introduction of services revealed a high prevalence of malnutrition and undernutrition and infectious disease morbidity, as well as lack of accessibility, underutilization and poor population coverage of governmental health services. Study villages were selected in separate clusters and allocated to a control group and three service groups in which nutrition care and medical care were provided singly and in combination by auxiliary health workers resident in each village. Outcome effects were measured through means of longitudinal and cross-sectional surveys. Service inputs and service costs were similarly monitored. Results showed significant improvement of growth (weight and height) and hemoglobin levels of children. Perinatal mortality was reduced by nutrition supplementation to pregnant women. Medical care significantly reduced postneonatal and 1 to 3 mortality, and decreased illness duration of all six conditions examined in this paper. The auxiliary health worker capably managed more than 90% of health needs on her own and referred the rest safely to the physician. Analysis of cost per child death averted showed that cost-effectiveness declined with increasing age of the child. Prenatal nutrition care to pregnant women was most cost-effective in preventing perinatal deaths followed by medical care for infants, and then medical care for the 1 to 3 year age group. The relevance of the field research to national or international endeavors to solve present health problems of developing nations and the timeliness of projects such as the Narangwal Nutrition Study is also evaluated. (+info)
Randomised controlled trial of trophic feeding and gut motility.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of trophic feeding on gastric emptying and whole gut transit time in sick preterm infants. METHODS: A randomised, controlled, prospective study of 70 infants weighing less than 1750 g at birth, who were receiving ventilatory support, was performed. Group TF (33 infants) received trophic feeding from day 3 (0.5 ml/h if birthweight less than 1 kg, 1 ml/h if greater or equal to 1 kg) in addition to parenteral nutrition until ventilatory support finished. Group C (37 infants) received parenteral nutrition alone until ventilatory support finished. Expressed breast milk or a preterm formula were given according to maternal preference. Gastric emptying was assessed within 24 hours of nutritive milk feeding equal to 90 ml/kg/day, using ultrasound scans to measure the reduction in the gastric antral cross sectional area after a feed. Whole gut motility was assessed at both 3 and 6 weeks of age by measuring the whole gut transit time (WGTT) of the marker carmine red. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between groups in their gastric half emptying time, median difference (95% confidence interval) 2.6 (-5.9, 13.9) minutes. The WGTT was significantly faster (p < 0.05) in group TF at both 3 and 6 weeks; median difference -13 (-47, -0.1) and -12.5 (-44, -0.5) hours, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Trophic feeding enhances whole gut motility but not gastric emptying. This effect could subsequently improve milk tolerance in sick preterm infants. (+info)
Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV: analysis of cost effectiveness of options available in South Africa.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost effectiveness of vertical transmission prevention strategies by using a mathematical simulation model. DESIGN: A Markov chain model was used to simulate the cost effectiveness of four formula feeding strategies, three antiretroviral interventions, and combined formula feeding and antiretroviral interventions on a cohort of 20 000 pregnancies. All children born to HIV positive mothers were followed up until age of likely death given current life expectancy and a cost per life year gained calculated for each strategy. SETTING: Model of working class, urban South African population. RESULTS: Low cost antiretroviral regimens were almost as effective as high cost ones and more cost effective when formula feeding interventions were added. With or without formula feeding, low cost antiretroviral interventions were likely to save lives and money. Interventions that allowed breast feeding early on, to be replaced by formula feeding at 4 or 7 months, seemed likely to save fewer lives and offered poorer value for money. CONCLUSIONS: Antiretroviral interventions are probably cost effective across a wide range of settings, with or without formula feeding interventions. The appropriateness of formula feeding was highly cost effective only in settings with high seroprevalence and reasonable levels of child survival and dangerous where infant mortality was high or the protective effect of breast feeding substantial. Pilot projects are now needed to ensure the feasibility of implementation. (+info)
Iron fortified follow on formula from 9 to 18 months improves iron status but not development or growth: a randomised trial.
AIMS: Iron deficiency anaemia is associated, in observational studies, with developmental disadvantage. This study tested the hypothesis that feeding iron supplemented formula from 9 to 18 months of age would improve developmental performance. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 493 healthy children aged 9 months being fed pasteurised cows' milk were recruited from three UK centres. They were randomised to: cows' milk as before, formula containing 0.9 mg/litre iron, or formula containing 1.2 mg/litre iron, until 18 months of age. Bayley mental and psychomotor developmental indices were measured at 18 months, as were growth and haematological indices. RESULTS: Children fed iron fortified formula had higher plasma ferritin concentrations, but there were no significant intergroup differences in development or growth. CONCLUSIONS: There are no developmental or growth advantages in children given iron supplemented formula, but a benefit for a minority who were anaemic, or the possibility that a benefit may emerge at a later age, cannot be excluded. (+info)
A randomised controlled study of the effect of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on stool hardness during formula feeding.
BACKGROUND: The passage of hard stools is significantly more common in formula fed infants than breast fed infants and this might be the result of differences in fat absorption between breast and formula fed infants. Experimental studies indicate that long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) might influence fat hydrolysis and absorption. AIM: To investigate the relation of LCPUFA supplementation to stool frequency and consistency during the first 4 months of life. DESIGN: Double blind, randomised, controlled study of 88 healthy infants. RESULTS: 1905 stools (858 from LCPUFA supplemented infants, 1047 non-supplemented infants) were examined. The mean (SEM) number of stools passed for each three day study period was significantly less in the LCPUFA group (5.5 (0.3) v 6.2 (0.2); p < 0.05). In both groups, there was a significant reduction in the number of stools passed with age (p < 0.001). During the first 3 months, the mean (SEM) percentage of hard stools passed by infants in the LCPUFA supplemented group was 7.7 (2.1) compared with 19.2 (2.8) for unsupplemented infants (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hard stools is significantly reduced in infants fed a formula that is supplemented with LCPUFAs. (+info)
Randomised trial of different rates of feeding in acute diarrhoea.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of different feeding frequencies on the speed of recovery from diarrhoea. METHODS: A randomised, non-blinded trial provided 0.452 MJ/kg/day as either 6 or 12 feeds of cows' milk each day to 262 hospitalised male infants aged 3-12 months with acute diarrhoea. Stool frequency, stool weight, body weight, and diarrhoea complications were monitored until recovery or for 14 days. RESULTS: A proportional hazards regression model controlling for age, diarrhoea aetiology, and severity of dehydration on admission revealed that the frequently fed group had a significantly shorter duration of diarrhoea (hazards ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.002 to 1.653). Frequently fed infants had a significantly greater weight gain and significantly lower faecal frequency and faecal weight. CONCLUSIONS: Breast feeding remains the preferred method of feeding infants with acute diarrhoea, but feeding cows' milk to adequately nourished infants with acute diarrhoea is safe and is more rapidly effective if provided in frequent feeds with low energy loads. (+info)
Infant feeding, early weight gain, and risk of type 1 diabetes. Childhood Diabetes in Finland (DiMe) Study Group.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the increased risk of type 1 diabetes conferred by an early introduction of cow's milk supplements can be mediated by accelerated growth in formula-fed infants. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: All children < or = 14 years of age who were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes from September 1986 to April 1989 were invited to participate in the study. Birth date- and sex-matched control children were randomly selected from the Finnish Population Registry. At least three weight measurements from the first year of life were obtained for 435 full-term diabetic subjects and 386 control subjects from well-baby clinics and school health care units. RESULTS: Increase in body weight was greater in the diabetic girls than in the control girls, and the difference increased from 111 g (95% CI 0-218, P = 0.04) at 1 month of age to 286 g (95% CI 123-450, P = 0.0006) at 7 months. For boys, the difference in weight between the diabetic subjects and the control subjects remained stable during infancy (difference 95 g, 95% CI-2-205, P = 0.09). Increased weight was associated on average with a 1.5-fold risk of type 1 diabetes. Early introduction of formula feeding (< 3 vs. > or = 3 months) was also associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes after adjustment for the individual weight gain curve (adjusted odds ratio 1.53, 95% CI 1.1-2.2). No evidence for interaction was observed. CONCLUSIONS: These observations indicate that an early exposure to cow's milk formula-feeding and rapid growth in infancy are independent risk factors of childhood type 1 diabetes. (+info)