Safety of a new extensively hydrolysed formula in children with cow's milk protein allergy: a double blind crossover study.
BACKGROUND: Formulae for infants with cow's milk protein allergy (CMA) should be based on extensively hydrolysed protein. 'Extensively' however is not strictly defined. Differences in molecular weight and peptide chain length may affect its clinical outcome. We studied the safety of a new extensively hydrolysed casein based formula (Frisolac Allergycare: FAC) for children with IgE mediated CMA. METHODS: Thirty children, aged 1.5 - 14.8 years old (median 4.9 years) with persistent CMA were enrolled in this double-blind reference product (Nutramigen: NUT) controlled crossover study. All had positive skin prick tests (SPT) and IgE mediated allergy, showing immediate reactions after ingestion of small amounts of milk. Twenty-five children also had positive radio allergen sorbent tests (RAST) to cow's milk. Formulae provided consisted of 80% elementary formula in combination with 20% reference or test product. Crossover periods lasted for two weeks. From both products molecular weight (MALDI-TOF method and HPLC) and peptide chain length distribution (adapted Edman degradation) were determined. RESULTS: Maximum molecular weights of NUT and FAC are 2.1 and 2.56 kDa, respectively. The contribution of free amino acids and small peptides <0.5 kDa is 46% for FAC and 53% for NUT. About 50% of the protein fraction of both products consists of peptides longer than four amino acids. Three children did not complete the study. The other children all tolerated FAC very well; no adverse reactions were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The new extensively hydrolysed casein-based formula (FAC) can safely be used in children with IgE mediated cow's milk allergy. (+info)
Formula feeding potentiates docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid biosynthesis in term and preterm baboon neonates.
Infant formulas supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are now available in the United States; however, little is known about the factors that affect biosynthesis. Baboon neonates were assigned to one of four treatments: term, breast-fed; term, formula-fed; preterm (155 of 182 days gestation), formula-fed; and preterm, formula+DHA/ARA-fed. Standard formula had no DHA/ARA; supplemented formula had 0.61%wt DHA (0.3% of calories) and 1.21%wt ARA (0.6% of calories), and baboon breast milk contained 0.68 +/- 0.22%wt DHA and 0.62 +/- 0.12%wt ARA. At 14 days adjusted age, neonates received a combined oral dose of [U-13C]alpha-linolenic acid (LNA*) and [U-13C]linoleic acid (LA*), and tissues were analyzed 14 days after dose. Brain accretion of linolenic acid-derived DHA was approximately 3-fold greater for the formula groups than for the breast-fed group, and dietary DHA partially attenuated excess DHA synthesis among preterms. A similar, significant pattern was found in other organs. Brain linoleic acid-derived ARA accretion was significantly greater in the unsupplemented term group but not in the preterm groups compared with the breast-fed group. These data show that formula potentiates the biosynthesis/accretion of DHA/ARA in term and preterm neonates compared with breast-fed neonates and that the inclusion of DHA/ARA in preterm formula partially restores DHA/ARA biosynthesis to lower, breast-fed levels. Current formula DHA concentrations are inadequate to normalize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids synthesis to that of breast-fed levels. (+info)
Zinc intake of US preschool children exceeds new dietary reference intakes.
BACKGROUND: The recent dietary reference intakes publication provides updated information on the physiologic and dietary requirements for zinc and proposes new tolerable upper intake levels. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed dietary intake data of US preschool children to determine the prevalence of inadequate and excessive intakes of zinc. DESIGN: Diets of 7474 nonbreastfeeding preschool children in the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1994-1996 and 1998) were analyzed for the intakes of zinc and other dietary components, and factors associated with zinc intake were examined. RESULTS: The mean intakes of zinc by children aged < 1 y, 1-3 y, and 4-5 y were 6.6, 7.6, and 9.1 mg/d, respectively. Less than 1% of children had usual zinc intakes below the adequate intake or estimated average requirement. The percentages of children with intakes exceeding the tolerable upper intake level were 92% (0-6 mo), 86% (7-12 mo), 51% (1-3 y), and 3% (4-5 y). Controlling for age and energy intake, zinc intake was greater in 1998 than in 1994 (P < 0.0001) and was positively associated with participation in the Women, Infants, and Children Program (P < 0.001) and with the lowest income category (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Preschool children in the United States have dietary zinc intakes that exceed the new dietary reference intakes. Zinc intakes increased during the 4 y of the study. The present level of intake does not seem to pose a health problem, but if zinc intake continues to increase because of the greater availability of zinc-fortified foods in the US food supply, the amount of zinc consumed by children may become excessive. (+info)
Brain ganglioside and glycoprotein sialic acid in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants.
BACKGROUND: The concentration of sialic acid in brain gangliosides and glycoproteins has been linked to learning ability in animal studies. Human milk is a rich source of sialic acid-containing oligosaccharides and is a potential source of exogenous sialic acid. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the sialic acid concentration in the brain frontal cortex of breastfed and formula-fed infants. DESIGN: Twenty-five samples of frontal cortex derived from infants who died of sudden infant death syndrome were analyzed. Twelve infants were breastfed, 10 infants were formula-fed, and 1 infant was mixed-fed; the feeding status of the remaining 2 infants was unknown. Ganglioside-bound and protein-bound sialic acid were determined by HPLC. Ganglioside ceramide fatty acids were also analyzed to determine the relation between sialic acid and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. RESULTS: After adjustment for sex with age at death as a covariate, ganglioside-bound and protein-bound sialic acid concentrations were 32% and 22% higher, respectively, in the frontal cortex gray matter of breastfed infants than in that of formula-fed infants (P < 0.01). Protein-bound sialic acid increased with age in both groups (P = 0.02). In breastfed but not in formula-fed infants, ganglioside-bound sialic acid correlated significantly with ganglioside ceramide docosahexaenoic acid and total n-3 fatty acids. CONCLUSIONS: Higher brain ganglioside and glycoprotein sialic acid concentrations in infants fed human milk suggests increased synaptogenesis and differences in neurodevelopment. (+info)
Neonatal weight loss in breast and formula fed infants.
OBJECTIVE: To define the range of neonatal weight loss in a population relative to feeding method. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Maternity service providing geographically defined, community based newborn follow up. PARTICIPANTS: 971 consecutive term newborns of birth weight > or = 2500 g during the first 2-3 weeks of life; 34 excluded (inadequate data). 937 included: 45% breast fed, 42% formula fed, 13% breast and formula fed. OUTCOME MEASURES: Maximum weight loss and timing, age on regaining birth weight. RESULTS: Median weight loss: formula fed 3.5%, breast fed 6.6%. Upper centiles for maximum weight loss differ considerably (95th centiles: breast fed = 11.8%, formula fed = 8.4%; 97.5th centiles: breast fed = 12.8%, formula fed = 9.5%). Median time of maximum weight loss: 2.7 days for breast fed and formula fed. Recovery of birth weight: breast fed median 8.3 days, 95th centile 18.7 days, 97.5th centile 21.0 days; formula fed median 6.5 days, 95th centile 14.5 days, 97.5th centile 16.7 days. The time taken to regain birth weight correlates with both the degree and timing of initial weight loss for all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Early neonatal weight loss is defined allowing identification of infants who merit closer assessment and support. (+info)
Effects of powdered human milk fortifiers on the antibacterial actions of human milk.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of powdered fortifiers and the addition of iron and medium-chain triglycerides on preterm human milk antibacterial activity. STUDY DESIGN: Human milk samples were obtained from 42 preterm lactating mothers after the first week of postnatal life. Enfamil (EHMF) and Similac (SHMF) Human Milk Fortifiers were evaluated. All mothers were healthy and were on no medications except for vitamins during lactation. The effects of each fortifier against E. coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus (Staph), Enterobacter sakazakii (ES), and Group B Streptococcus (GBS) were measured by the filter paper method and growth of the bacteria with human milk alone as control. The addition of iron and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to human milk was also tested. RESULTS: Human milk inhibited the growth of E. coli, Staph, ES, and GBS. Only the SHMF and the addition of MCT had similar antibacterial action as human milk alone. EHMF and the addition of iron to human milk removed the milk's antibacterial action against these four organisms. CONCLUSIONS: Preterm human milk has antimicrobial activity against E. coli, Staph, ES, and GBS. This activity can be affected by the addition of iron and fortifiers that contain iron. (+info)
Comparison of breast- and formula-fed normal newborns in time to first stool and urine.
BACKGROUND: Although the time to an infant's first stool is used as a marker for a normal GI tract, there have been no studies to date which have evaluated the contribution of the first 24 hours' feeding type to time to first meconium stool, directly comparing breast feeding vs formula feeding. OBJECTIVE: To compare breast- and formula-fed healthy infants > or =34 weeks gestation in time to first stool and urine. STUDY DESIGN: A chart review of 1000 consecutive infants > or =34 weeks of gestational age admitted to the normal newborn nursery of Children's Hospital of Buffalo from June to October 2000. Infants (n=979) were grouped based on feeding type in the first 24 hours: breast-fed (n=211), formula-fed (n=540), and mixed feeding (n=228); n=21 excluded for Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admission. We initially compared the time to first stool and urine between the breast- and formula-fed groups and then examined multiple maternal and infant demographic and clinical factors for their effect on time to first stool using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Breast-fed infants were fed earlier and more frequently than formula-fed but there was no significant difference in time to first stool (7.6 vs 7.9 hours). Breast-fed infants were earlier in time to first urine (p=0.03) (7.3 vs 8.5 hours). In multiple regression analysis, gestational age was the only significant (p=0.000) factor in predicting time to first stool. CONCLUSION: Type of feeding did not predict time to first stool but gestational age was important even in this near-term and term population of infants > or =34 weeks gestation. (+info)
Comparison of evoked arousability in breast and formula fed infants.
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is no consistent evidence that breast feeding reduces the risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Arousal from sleep is believed to be an important survival mechanism that may be impaired in victims of SIDS. Previously it has been shown that arousability is impaired by the major risk factors for SIDS such as prone sleeping and maternal smoking. AIMS: To establish whether arousability was altered by method of feeding, and whether breast fed infants would have lower arousal thresholds. METHODS: Forty three healthy term infants were studied using daytime polysomnography on three occasions: 2-4 weeks post-term, 2-3 months post-term, and 5-6 months post-term. Multiple measurements of arousal threshold (cm H(2)O) in response to nasal air jet stimulation applied alternately to the nares were made in both active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS) while infants slept supine. Arousal thresholds and sleep period lengths were compared between formula fed and breast fed infants at each age. RESULTS: Arousal thresholds were not different between breast fed and formula fed infants in QS. However, in AS breast fed infants were significantly more arousable than formula fed infants at 2-3 months of age. There was no difference between groups of infants when sleep period length was compared at any study. CONCLUSIONS: Breast fed infants are more easily aroused from AS at 2-3 months of age than formula fed infants. This age coincides with the peak incidence of SIDS. (+info)