Extent of thermal processing of infant formula affects copper status in infant rhesus monkeys.
(73/891)BACKGROUND: Infant rhesus monkeys are excellent models in which to study the effect of infant formulas on trace element absorption and status. Infants fed powdered formula from birth exhibit normal growth and have blood variables similar to those of breast-fed infants. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to evaluate the effects of feeding ready-to-feed (RTF) formulas exposed to different heat treatments to infant monkeys, and, for one of these formulas, to compare the effect of fortification with 2 iron concentrations. DESIGN: From birth to age 5 mo, infant monkeys (n = 6/group) were fed one of the following formulas exclusively: 1) 12 mg Fe/L processed in cans (RTF-12), 2) formula in glass bottles with 12 mg Fe/L and manufactured by an ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) process (UHT-12), or 3) formula manufactured by a standard thermal process (STP), containing either 8 (STP-8) or 12 (STP-12) mg Fe/L. All formulas had similar copper concentrations (0.6 mg Cu/L). Anthropometric measures and venous blood samples were taken monthly. RESULTS: Weight and length gain did not differ among groups; however, the STP-12 group weighed less than the UHT-12 group at ages 2, 4, and 5 mo. Hemoglobin values were significantly lower in the RTF-12 group than in all other groups at ages 4 and 5 mo and serum ferritin was lower in the RTF-12 group than in the STP-12 group at age 5 mo. Copper status was lower in STP-12 infants than in STP-8 infants. There was a progressive and significant decline in plasma copper, ceruloplasmin, and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activity in infants fed canned formula (RTF-12). Furthermore, coat color changed from normal brown to silver. These outcomes suggest that the canned formula induced copper deficiency in infant monkeys. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive heat treatment of formula can have a pronounced negative effect on copper status. High iron concentrations did not improve iron status but may adversely affect copper status. (+info)
Feeding tolerance of ready-to-use versus powdered formulas in neonates.
(74/891)BACKGROUND: Following the introduction of ready-to-use formula in our neonatal department, we observed an increase in the number of neonates regurgitating after feeding. OBJECTIVE: To compare the feeding tolerance of neonates, in terms of regurgitations, to ready-to-use versus powdered formulas. METHODS: We compared the number of regurgitations in 727 healthy neonates after feeding ready-to-use formulas and powdered formulas of two different manufacturers. Six groups of neonates were formed, three for each manufacturer. Each of the two groups was fed with either ready-to-use formula or with reconstructed powdered formula (using a two-compartment patented feeding bottle called Twist 'N Feed) and one group received both preparations during 2 successive days. RESULTS: The groups that were fed only with ready-to-use formulas had significantly more regurgitations than those fed with powdered formulas. Within the group that received both types of formulas there were significantly more regurgitations following the ready-to-use than the powdered formula. CONCLUSIONS: Feeding tolerance, in terms of regurgitations, was significantly better in neonates fed reconstituted powdered formula as opposed to ready-to-use formulas. More studies are required to determine the exact mechanism for these differences. (+info)
Specific identification and targeted characterization of Bifidobacterium lactis from different environmental isolates by a combined multiplex-PCR approach.
(75/891)The species Bifidobacterium lactis, with its main representative strain Bb12 (DSM 10140), is a yoghurt isolate used as a probiotic strain and is commercially applied in different types of yoghurts and infant formulas. In order to ensure the genetic identity and safety of this bacterial isolate, species- and strain-specific molecular tools for genetic fingerprinting must be available to identify isolated bifidobacteria or lactic acid bacteria from, e.g., various clinical environments of relevance in medical microbiology. Two opposing rRNA gene-targeted primers have been developed for specific detection of this microorganism by PCR. The specificity of this approach was evaluated and verified with DNA samples isolated from single and mixed cultures of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli (48 isolates, including the type strains of 29 Bifidobacterium and 9 Lactobacillus species). Furthermore, we performed a Multiplex-PCR using oligonucleotide primers targeting a specific region of the 16S rRNA gene for the genus Bifidobacterium and a conserved eubacterial 16S rDNA sequence. The specificity and sensitivity of this detection with a pure culture of B. lactis were, respectively, 100 bacteria/ml after 25 cycles of PCR and 1 to 10 bacteria/ml after a 50-cycle nested-PCR approach. (+info)
Systematic review concerning the age of introduction of complementary foods to the healthy full-term infant.
(76/891)OBJECTIVES: To evaluate existing data from published studies investigating outcomes (growth, nutritional status and morbidity) in relation to the age of introduction of complementary foods to the healthy full-term infant. To assess the methodological quality of current scientific evidence on which infant feeding recommendations are based. SEARCH STRATEGY: A database was created following a search of electronic databases MEDLINE and BIDS, a handsearch of relevant journals and consultation with international experts in infant feeding practices. The search was conducted during a 6-month period and encompassed the years 1982-1998. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Randomised/non-randomised controlled trials and cohort studies investigating the relationship to the health of full-term infants of the introduction of complementary foods to childhood health. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Assessment of studies for inclusion and their compliance with methodological criteria was undertaken independently by two reviewers and discrepancies were resolved by discussion. RESULTS: From over 400 published papers identified, 33 met specific inclusion criteria. Significant differences in baseline characteristics of subjects in included studies meant that data were not amenable to meta-analysis. The consensus of the authors was that, of the 33 included publications, 13 contained data supporting the current WHO recommendations which attempt to accommodate all infants, including those whose nutritional requirements are not met by exclusive breast-feeding for 6 months. An equal number contained data that would support a recommendation for delaying the introduction of complementary foods until 6 months of age within the study population. The remaining seven were unable to provide evidence to support a change from the current WHO infant feeding recommendations which state that 'infants should be fed exclusively on breast milk from birth to 4-6 months of age'. None of the studies met all the methodological criteria. CONCLUSIONS: This review has shown that there is a lack of clear evidence to either support or refute a change to the current recommendations for the age of introduction of complementary foods to the breast milk or formula fed infant. Whilst exclusive breast feeding for the first 6 months of life can support growth and development in some infants, sub-groups have been identified within certain populations who may require complementary feeding prior to this age. (+info)
Flavor variety enhances food acceptance in formula-fed infants.
(77/891)BACKGROUND: Research in humans and animal models suggests that acceptance of solid foods by infants during weaning is enhanced by early experiences with flavor variety. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypotheses that the acceptance of novel foods by formula-fed infants could be facilitated by providing the infants with a variety of flavors at the time when beikost is first introduced and that, contrary to medical lore, infants who had previously consumed fruit would be less likely to reject vegetables when first introduced than would infants without such an experience. DESIGN: The infants' acceptance of a novel vegetable (pureed carrot) and a novel meat (pureed chicken) was evaluated after a 9-d exposure period in 3 groups of infants, some of whom had previously consumed fruit. During the home-exposure period, one group was fed only carrots, the target vegetable; a second group was fed only potatoes, a vegetable that differed in flavor from carrots; and a third group was fed a variety of vegetables that did not include carrots. RESULTS: Infants fed either carrots or a variety of vegetables, but not those fed potatoes, ate significantly more of the carrots after the exposure period. Exposure to a variety of vegetables also facilitated the acceptance of the novel food, pureed chicken, and daily experience with fruit enhanced the infants' initial acceptance of carrots. CONCLUSION: These findings are the first experimental evidence to indicate that exposure to a variety of flavors enhances acceptance of novel foods in human infants. (+info)
Food supplementation with encouragement to feed it to infants from 4 to 12 months of age has a small impact on weight gain.
(78/891)It is unclear whether a substantial decline in malnutrition among infants in developing countries can be achieved by increasing food availability and nutrition counseling without concurrent morbidity-reducing interventions. The study was designed to determine whether provision of generous amounts of a micronutrient-fortified food supplement supported by counseling or nutritional counseling alone would significantly improve physical growth between 4 and 12 mo of age. In a controlled trial, 418 infants 4 mo of age were individually randomized to one of the four groups and followed until 12 mo of age. The first group received a milk-based cereal and nutritional counseling; the second group monthly nutritional counseling alone. To control for the effect of twice-weekly home visits for morbidity ascertainment, similar visits were made in one of the control groups (visitation group); the fourth group received no intervention. The median energy intake from nonbreast milk sources was higher in the food supplementation group than in the visitation group by 1212 kJ at 26 wk (P < 0.001), 1739 kJ at 38 wk (P < 0.001) and 2257 kJ at 52 wk (P < 0.001). The food supplementation infants gained 250 g (95% confidence interval: 20--480 g) more weight than did the visitation group. The difference in the mean increment in length during the study was 0.4 cm (95% confidence interval: -0.1--0.9 cm). The nutritional counseling group had higher energy intakes ranging from 280 to 752 kJ at different ages (P < 0.05 at all ages) but no significant benefit on weight and length increments. Methods to enhance the impact of these interventions need to be identified. (+info)
Evaluation of a regional pilot program to prevent mother-infant HIV transmission--Thailand, 1998-2000.
(79/891)Worldwide, approximately 2.2 million women and 600,000 infants are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) each year. Extended zidovudine prophylaxis and other antiretroviral and obstetric interventions and the avoidance of breast-feeding have reduced dramatically mother-infant HIV transmission in countries with adequate health-care resources. However, in developing countries, where the impact of HIV is greatest, implementation has been limited by the complexity and expense of these interventions. In Thailand, where approximately 15,000 infants are born to HIV-infected women each year, the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) has collaborated with other organizations to identify simpler and more cost-effective interventions to reduce mother-infant HIV transmission. In 1998, a placebo-controlled clinical trial in Thailand using a simplified zidovudine regimen from 36 weeks' gestation until delivery reduced the risk for mother-infant transmission by 50%. In 1998, MOPH initiated a pilot program to prevent mother-infant HIV transmission in region 7, a rural area in northeastern Thailand with an antenatal HIV prevalence of approximately 1%, to assess program feasibility, effectiveness, and acceptability. This report summarizes an evaluation of the 2-year pilot program, which indicated that acceptance of HIV testing and adherence to zidovudine were high and HIV transmission was reduced. The findings demonstrate the feasibility of implementing programs to prevent mother-infant HIV transmission on a large scale in a developing country. (+info)
Food and nutrient intake in a cohort of 8-month-old infants in the south-west of England in 1993.
(80/891)OBJECTIVE: To investigate food and nutrient intakes in 8-month-old infants. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC), south-west England. SUBJECTS: A total of 1131 singleton Caucasian infants (82% of those invited) from a 10% random sample of ALSPAC, known as Children in Focus (CIF). METHODS: Diet was assessed using a structured 3-day unweighed dietary record. Food and nutrient intakes were compared with intakes from the 6--9 month age group of a British infant feeding survey, which formed part of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). Nutrient intakes were compared with dietary reference values (DRV). RESULTS: Intakes of energy and most nutrients were very similar between CIF and NDNS. The main difference was in the type of fat eaten resulting in a higher polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio in CIF (0.34) compared with NDNS (0.21). Other differences included the much lower calcium and iodine intakes in CIF compared with the NDNS. Differences in the proportion of consumers of formula and cow's milk accounted for most of the nutrient differences. Energy intakes were similar to the estimated average requirements (EAR), however, breastfed infants were slightly below and non-breastfed were slightly above the EAR. Mean intakes of zinc and vitamin D were below the Reference Nutrient Intakes. CONCLUSIONS: The diets of 8-month-old infants in this study were adequate in most nutrients. Breastfed infants had slightly lower energy intakes than non-breastfed infants. (+info)