Soluble form of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E- and L-selectin in human milk. (65/891)

In breast milk and paired serum from 70 lactating women and 40 of their term, infection-free neonates, on the 2nd and 5th day postpartum slCAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE- and sL-selectin were measured by ELISA and compared with those in 26 healthy adults (controls). Seven infant formulas and fresh milk from five cows were also analyzed. Human colostrum values of slCAM-1, sVCAM-1 (similar to those in maternal and control serum), sE-selectin and sL-selectin (-10 and -100 times lower than in maternal and control serum) were significantly higher than those in milk, while they varied widely. None of the adhesion molecules was detected in fresh cow's milk or infant formulas. Exclusively breast-fed infants showed significantly higher values of slCAM-1 and sL-selectin on the 2nd day of life than those supplemented also with formula. Only slCAM-1 values correlated positively between colostrum and time-matched maternal serum. These findings show in human milk important amounts of slCAM-1 and sVCAM-1 but minimal amounts of sE- and sL-selectin, which could affect the immune system of the neonate.  (+info)

Outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered milk formula. (66/891)

We describe an outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) that occurred in the neonatal intensive care unit of our hospital. A total of 12 neonates developed NEC in June-July 1998. For two of them, twin brothers, the NEC turned out to be fatal. Enterobacter sakazakii, a known contaminant of powdered milk formula, was isolated from a stomach aspirate, anal swab, and/or blood sample for 6 of the 12 neonates. A review of feeding procedures revealed that 10 of the 12 patients were fed orally with the same brand of powdered milk formula. E. sakazakii was isolated from the implicated prepared formula milk as well as from several unopened cans of a single batch. Molecular typing by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) confirmed, although partially, strain similarity between milk and patient isolates. No further cases of NEC were observed after the use of the contaminated milk formula was stopped. With this outbreak we show that intrinsic microbiological contamination of powdered milk formula can be a possible contributive factor in the development of NEC, a condition encountered almost exclusively in formula-fed premature infants. The use of sterilized liquid milk formula in neonatal care could prevent problems with intrinsic and extrinsic contamination of powdered milk formula.  (+info)

Concurrent and subsequent serum cholesterol of breast- and formula-fed infants. (67/891)

Animal studies have suggested that feeding a high-cholesterol diet early in life will reduce serum cholesterol of later life. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the serum cholesterol of breast-fed children and bottle-fed children. The former type of feeding has a cholesterol content 26-52 mg of cholesterol/8 ounces, and the latter type of feeding has 4 mg/2 ounces. Serum cholesterols were determined by the Wybenga technique. At the end of 4-6 months, both groups were switched from their original feeding to skim milk. The parents were counseled to avoid high-cholesterol content foods such as eggs and to limit the intake of the more moderate cholesterol dietary forms. Our objective was to achieve a cholesterol intake of 200 mg/day for both groups. The serum cholesterol was evaluated at the following ages: 2-4 months, 12 months, 18-24 months, and 15-19 years. The same child was not necessaryily followed longitudinally. Our results indicate that breast-fed children had significantly higher serum cholesterols than bottle-fed children at ages 2-4 months and 12 months. After 1 year, no significant difference in serum cholesterol was found when the two groups were compared. We concluded that no protection against high serum cholesterol in later life occurred as the result of initial feedings high in cholesterol.  (+info)

Effects of exclusive breastfeeding for four versus six months on maternal nutritional status and infant motor development: results of two randomized trials in Honduras. (68/891)

To examine whether the duration of exclusive breastfeeding affects maternal nutrition or infant motor development, we examined data from two studies in Honduras: the first with 141 infants of low-income primiparous women and the second with 119 term, low birth weight infants. In both studies, infants were exclusively breastfed for 4 mo and then randomly assigned to continue exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) until 6 mo or to receive high-quality, hygienic solid foods (SF) in addition to breast milk between 4 and 6 mo. Maternal weight loss between 4 and 6 mo was significantly greater in the exclusive breastfeeding group (EBF) group than in the group(s) given solid foods (SF) in study 1 (-0.7 +/- 1.5 versus -0.1 +/- 1.7 kg, P < 0.05) but not in study 2. The estimated average additional nutritional burden of continuing to exclusively breastfeed until 6 mo was small, representing only 0.1-6.0% of the recommended dietary allowance for energy, vitamin A, calcium and iron. Women in the EBF group were more likely to be amenorrheic at 6 mo than women in the SF group, which conserves nutrients such as iron. In both studies, few women (10-11%) were thin (body mass index <19 kg/m(2)), so the additional weight loss in the EBF group in study 1 was unlikely to have been detrimental. Infants in the EBF group crawled sooner (both studies) and were more likely to be walking by 12 mo (study 1) than infants in the SF group. Taken together with our previous findings, these results indicate that the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding during this interval appear to outweigh any potential disadvantages in this setting.  (+info)

Infant feeding in the 20th century: formula and beikost. (69/891)

The early years of the 20th century were notable for improvements in general sanitation, dairying practices and milk handling. Most infants were breast-fed, often with some formula feeding as well. Availability of the home icebox permitted safe storage of milk and infant formula, and by the 1920s, feeding of orange juice and cod liver oil greatly decreased the incidence of scurvy and rickets. Use of evaporated milk for formula preparation decreased bacterial contamination and curd tension of infant formulas. From 1930 through the 1960s, breast-feeding declined and cow's milk and beikost were introduced into the diet at earlier and earlier ages. Although commercially prepared formulas, including iron-fortified formulas replaced home-prepared formulas, few infants were breast-fed or formula fed after 4-6 mo of age. Iron deficiency was prevalent. From 1970 through 1999, a resurgence of breast-feeding was associated with a prolongation of formula feeding and an increase in usage of iron-fortified formulas. By the end of the century, formula feeding of older infants had largely replaced feeding of fresh cow's milk and the prevalence of iron deficiency had greatly decreased.  (+info)

Feeding the premature infant in the 20th century. (70/891)

This article reviews the historical development of feeding the premature infant in the 20th century. It describes the early work determining the energy requirements of the preterm infant, the evolution of the use of human milk and its fortification for these infants, the development of special formulas for very-low-birth-weight infants and the various techniques/methods utilized including total parenteral nutrition.  (+info)

Unicef and baby food manufacturers.(71/891)

Unicef continues to base its actions and programmes on the best interests of the child.  (+info)

Simultaneous monitoring of gastric and oesophageal pH reveals limitations of conventional oesophageal pH monitoring in milk fed infants. (72/891)

BACKGROUND: Monitoring oesophageal pH conventionally detects "acid reflux" (pH less than 4). The pH of the gastric contents determines whether or not reflux can be detected. AIM: To monitor gastric and oesophageal pH simultaneously in order to determine the effect of milk feeds on gastric pH and how this would influence interpretation of the oesophageal pH record. METHODS: Milk fed infants for whom oesophageal pH monitoring was requested underwent simultaneous gastric and oesophageal pH monitoring using a dual channel pH probe. RESULTS: Twenty of 24 records were technically satisfactory. Mean reflux index was 1.0%, range 0.0-4.0%. Gastric pH was less than 4 for 24.5% (range 0.6-69.1%) of the total time. The average time the gastric pH was greater than 4 after feeds was 130 minutes (range 29-212 minutes). The corrected reflux index (limited to the time the gastric pH was less than 4) was 2.6% (range 0.0-11.0%). CONCLUSION: The pH of the gastric contents may be greater than 4 for prolonged intervals, during which oesophageal pH monitoring using current criteria cannot detect reflux nor correlate it with clinical events. A low reflux index may reflect prolonged buffering of gastric acidity rather than the absence of reflux.  (+info)