Effect of cow's milk exposure and maternal type 1 diabetes on cellular and humoral immunization to dietary insulin in infants at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Finnish Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk Study Group. (57/891)

Type 1 diabetes is considered to be a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease in which insulin-producing beta-cells are destroyed. Immunity to insulin has been suggested to be one of the primary autoimmune mechanisms leading to islet cell destruction. We have previously shown that the first immunization to insulin occurs by exposure to bovine insulin (BI) in cow's milk (CM) formula. In this study, we analyzed the development of insulin-specific T-cell responses by proliferation test, emergence of insulin-binding antibodies by enzyme immunoassay, and insulin autoantibodies by radioimmunoassay in relation to CM exposure and family history of type 1 diabetes in infants with a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes and increased genetic risk for the disease. The infants were randomized to receive either an adapted CM-based formula or a hydrolyzed casein (HC)-based formula after breast-feeding for the first 6-8 months of life. At the age of 3 months, both cellular and humoral responses to BI were higher in infants exposed to CM formula than in infants fully breast-fed (P = 0.015 and P = 0.007). IgG antibodies to BI were higher in infants who received CM formula than in infants who received HC formula at 3 months of age (P = 0.01), but no difference in T-cell responses was seen between the groups. T-cell responses to BI at 9 months of age (P = 0.05) and to human insulin at 12 (P = 0.014) and 24 months of age (P = 0.009) as well as IgG antibodies to BI at 24 months of age (P = 0.05) were lower in children with a diabetic mother than in children with a diabetic father or a sibling, suggesting possible tolerization to insulin by maternal insulin therapy. The priming of insulin-specific humoral and T-cell immunity occurs in early infancy by dietary insulin, and this phenomenon is influenced by maternal type 1 diabetes.  (+info)

Importance of intestinal colonisation in the maturation of humoral immunity in early infancy: a prospective follow up study of healthy infants aged 0-6 months. (58/891)

AIM: To evaluate the role of intestinal microflora and early formula feeding in the maturation of humoral immunity in healthy newborn infants. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty four healthy infants were studied. Faecal colonisation with Bacteroides fragilis group, Bifidobacterium-like, and Lactobacillus-like bacteria was examined at 1, 2, and 6 months of age, and also the number of IgA-secreting, IgM-secreting, and IgG-secreting cells (detected by ELISPOT) at 0, 2, and 6 months of age. RESULTS: Intestinal colonisation with bacteria from the B fragilis group was more closely associated with maturation of IgA-secreting and IgM-secreting cells than colonisation with the other bacterial genera studied or diet. Infants colonised with B fragilis at 1 month of age had more IgA-secreting and IgM-secreting cells/10(6) mononuclear cells at 2 months of age (geometric mean (95% confidence interval) 1393 (962 to 2018) and 754 (427 to 1332) respectively) than infants not colonised (1015 (826 to 1247) and 394 (304 to 511) respectively); p = 0.04 and p = 0.009 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The type of bacteria colonising the intestine of newborns and the timing may determine the immunomodulation of the naive immune system.  (+info)

Etiology of nephrocalcinosis in preterm neonates: association of nutritional intake and urinary parameters. (59/891)

BACKGROUND: Nephrocalcinosis (NC) in preterm neonates has been described frequently, and small-scale studies suggest an unfavorable effect on renal function. The etiologic factors have not yet been fully clarified. We performed a prospective observational study to identify factors that influence the development of NC. METHODS: The study population consisted of 215 preterm neonates with a gestational age <32 weeks. Clinical characteristics and intake in the first four weeks of calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, protein, and ascorbic acid were noted. Serum calcium, phosphate, vitamin D, magnesium, uric acid, creatinine, urea and urinary calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, magnesium, uric acid, and creatinine were assessed at four weeks of age and at term. Renal ultrasonography (US) was performed at four weeks and at term. At term was defined as a postconceptional age of 38 to 42 weeks. RESULTS: NC was diagnosed by means of US in 33% at four weeks and in 41% at term. Patients with NC at four weeks had a significantly higher mean intake of calcium (P < 0.05), phosphorus (P < 0.05), and ascorbic acid (P < 0.01) than patients without NC. They had a higher mean serum calcium (2.55 vs. 2.46 mmol/L, P < 0.01) and a higher mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (2.6 vs. 2.1 mmol/mmol, P < 0.05). Patients with NC at term had a lower birth weight (1142 vs. 1260 g, P < 0.05) and a lower gestational age (28.8 vs. 29.4 weeks, P < 0.05), were treated significantly longer with furosemide, dexamethasone, theophylline, and thiazides, developed chronic lung disease more frequently (40 vs. 16%, P < 0.001), and had a higher mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (2.7 vs. 2.3 mmol/mmol, P < 0.05) and a lower mean urinary citrate/calcium ratio (1.1 vs. 1.7 mmol/mmol, P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: NC develops as a result of an imbalance between stone-inhibiting and stone-promoting factors. A high intake of calcium, phosphorus, and ascorbic acid, a low urinary citrate/calcium ratio, a high urinary calcium/creatinine ratio, immaturity, and medication to prevent or treat chronic lung disease with hypercalciuric side effects appear to contribute to the high incidence of NC in preterm neonates.  (+info)

Premature complementary feeding is associated with poorer growth of vietnamese children. (60/891)

The objective of this longitudinal study was to investigate the association between the premature initiation of complementary feeding and physical growth of children. Four cohorts of newborn children were included, consisting of 90 infants born in 1981, 90 in 1982, 60 infants in 1983 and 60 in 1984. The weights and heights of children were measured monthly up to 1 y, then every 3 mo for y 2 and 3, and once every 6 mo in y 4. Information on feeding practices and diseases of the children was obtained by interviewing the mothers at each home visit. All but three children (98.6%) were breast-fed. Although 87.1% of the mothers breast-fed their children for at least 1 y, only 3.3% of the infants were breast-fed exclusively at the age of 4 mo. In the analyses of growth, care was taken to address the biases of reverse causality, regression to the mean and confounding. There was little association between feeding pattern at 15 d and growth in length in mo 1. However, partially breast-fed and weaned infants gained weight more slowly than those exclusively or predominantly breast-fed. From 1 to 3 mo, exclusively breast-fed infants grew more quickly in both weight and length, followed by predominantly breast-fed infants. From 3 to 6 mo, exclusively breast-fed infants gained more weight compared with the other groups, but there was a slight difference (P = 0.047) in length gain only between exclusively and partially breast-fed infants. In the older period (6-12 mo), exclusively and predominantly breast-fed infants grew in length more quickly than partially breast-fed and weaned groups. However, there was no difference in weight gain among groups. Morbidity from diarrhea and acute respiratory infections was significantly lower for the >/=3 mo exclusively breast-fed group (chi(2) and Fisher-Exact Test). Over nearly the whole age range from 1 mo to 4 y, Z-scores for all indices (weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height) of the children who received complementary food were significantly lower than those of children who were exclusively breast-fed for at least 3 mo (repeated measures ANOVA, adjusted for sex, family size, maternal education and family income). These results show a long-term deterioration of physical growth in infants who received premature complementary feeding and confirm the importance of exclusive breast-feeding for infants for at least 3 mo.  (+info)

Breast-fed and formula-fed infants do not differ in immunocompetent cell cytokine production despite differences in cell membrane fatty acid composition. (61/891)

BACKGROUND: Breast-fed and formula-fed infants differ in the amount and type of polyunsaturated fatty acids consumed. The fatty acid composition of cell membranes is related to dietary fatty acids and, in adults, changes in membrane fatty acid composition are accompanied by changes in monocyte cytokine production and hence a modification of the immunologic response. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether production by immunocompetent cells of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) differs between breast-fed and formula-fed infants. DESIGN: Twenty-six healthy infants (13 breast-fed and 13 fed modified cow-milk formula) aged 2-4 mo were studied. The fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids was measured by gas-liquid chromatography and IL-1 and TNF release were measured in whole blood culture in bacterial-endotoxin-stimulated and unstimulated cells. RESULTS: The infants' ages, weights, hemoglobin concentrations, and white blood cell counts did not differ significantly between groups. The percentage of n-3 fatty acids of total RBC phospholipid fatty acids was significantly higher in breast-fed than in formula-fed infants (6.31 +/- 2.5% compared with 2.98 +/- 0.97%); docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) concentrations were also markedly higher in breast-fed infants (5.1 +/- 1.2% compared with 2.2 +/- 0.9%, P: < 0.001), but eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3) concentrations did not differ significantly between groups. The percentage of n-6 fatty acids was not significantly different between groups. The percentage of oleic acid (18:1) was higher in formula-fed than in breast-fed infants (16.2 +/- 0.7% compared with 20.6 +/- 1.1%; P: < 0.001). IL-1 and TNF release in whole blood culture did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSION: The release of proinflammatory cytokines by immunocompetent cells does not differ significantly in breast-fed and formula-fed infants despite differences in cell membrane fatty acid composition.  (+info)

Dietary fats and cholesterol in italian infants and children. (62/891)

The fat intake of Italian infants has peculiar characteristics that begin quite early because their mothers' milk has a monounsaturated fat content (45%) at the upper limit of the values found in Europe. Comparison studies in breast-fed and formula-fed infants were conducted to evaluate growth and developmental correlates and differences in fat intakes in the early months of life. Breast-fed infants have higher blood lipid concentrations at 4 mo of age than do formula-fed infants. The addition of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and cholesterol to formulas for term infants may affect concentrations of circulating blood lipids as well as the LCPUFA composition of the lipids during the breast-feeding period. The addition of LCPUFAs does not seem to affect the growth rate of formula-fed infants. Although an initial benefit of LCPUFA feeding on eye-hand coordination was observed, this effect was not sustained; by 24 mo, different feeding groups had similar developmental scores. Other peculiarities of the Italian experience are presented, including body weights from infancy to early childhood in 147 children, the nutrient densities of different diets in Italian schoolchildren, and the effects of nutritional education on dietary intakes. The diets of these children were high in animal protein and supplied approximately 30-35% of energy from fats throughout childhood. Both the dietary protein intakes at 1 y of age and parental body mass indexes were associated with 5-y body mass index values. Classroom education may be useful to lower the plasma lipid concentrations in healthy, primary school-age children. It is not known whether this early modification can be maintained and whether it influences the later development of cardiovascular disorders.  (+info)

Dietary fat intakes in infants and primary school children in Germany. (63/891)

We report dietary fat intake data in groups of infants and children in Germany. A group of 148 healthy infants was followed prospectively from birth through the first year of life. After birth, 78.9% of infants were breast-fed; 50% were breast-fed at 3 mo and 9. 8% were breast-fed at 12 mo. Infant formula was given to 22% of infants after birth, 53% at 3 mo, and 58% at 12 mo. Complementary foods were consumed by 16% of infants at 3 mo, 97% at 6 mo, and 98-100% at 7-12 mo. In non-breast-fed infants, mean dietary fat intakes were 44.8%, 42.9%, 37.4%, and 35.7% of energy intake at the ages of 1, 4, 6, and 12 mo, respectively. Calculated energy and nutrient intakes were within recommended ranges and weight gain was normal. Therefore, we see no compelling reason to actively modify total fat intakes at this age. In 158 primary school children aged 6-11 y, 7-d checklist protocols showed 41% of energy intake as fat with approximately 50% as saturated fat. Because German children of this age are experiencing increasing rates of obesity and high serum cholesterol concentrations, a stepwise reduction of total fat and saturated fat intakes in primary school children appears desirable to improve long-term health.  (+info)

Energy requirements derived from total energy expenditure and energy deposition during the first 2 y of life. (64/891)

BACKGROUND: Current recommendations for energy intake of children are derived from observed intakes. Deriving energy requirements on the basis of energy expenditure and deposition is scientifically more rational than is using the observational approach and is now possible with data on total energy expenditure (TEE), growth, and body composition. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were 1) to define energy requirements during the first 2 y of life on the basis of TEE and energy deposition; 2) to test effects of sex, age, and feeding mode on energy requirements; and 3) to determine physical activity. DESIGN: TEE, sleeping metabolic rate, anthropometry, and body composition were measured in 76 infants. TEE was measured with doubly labeled water, sleeping metabolic rate with respiratory calorimetry, and body composition with a multicomponent model. RESULTS: Total energy requirements were 2.23, 2.59, 2.97, 3. 38, 3.72, and 4.15 MJ/d at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 mo, respectively. Energy deposition (in MJ/d) decreased significantly over time (P: = 0.001) and was lower in breast-fed than in formula-fed infants (P: = 0.01). Energy requirements were approximately 80% of current recommendations. Energy requirements differed by age (P: = 0.001), feeding group (P: = 0.03), and sex (P: = 0.03). Adjusted for weight or fat-free mass and fat mass, energy requirements still differed by feeding group but not by age or sex. Temperament and motor development did not affect TEE. CONCLUSION: The TEE and energy-deposition data of these healthy, thriving children provide strong evidence that current recommendations for energy intake in the first 2 y of life should be revised.  (+info)