Serum leptin concentrations in infants: effects of diet, sex, and adiposity.
(49/891)BACKGROUND: Leptin, the product of the obese (ob) gene, is a regulator of food intake and energy metabolism. Immunoreactive leptin was detected recently in breast milk and it has been hypothesized that leptin may be absorbed and may contribute to differences in body composition between breast-fed and formula-fed infants. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate whether diet, adiposity, or sex affect plasma leptin in breast-fed and formula-fed infants. DESIGN: Venous blood samples were drawn from healthy, exclusively breast-fed or formula-fed Swedish infants at 1, 4, and 6 mo of age (n = 193) and from 12-mo-old Finnish infants (n = 79). Anthropometric measurements were made and plasma samples were analyzed for leptin, insulin, and glucose. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in plasma leptin between formula-fed and breast-fed infants at 1 and 4 mo of age, whereas formula-fed infants had significantly higher ( approximately 5%) leptin concentrations at 6 mo of age. Similar results were observed after correction for BMI. Plasma leptin was 15-25% higher in female than in male infants at 1, 4, and 12 mo of age (P < 0.05), also after correction for BMI. When all infants were analyzed together, a positive correlation (r = 0.34, P < 0.0001) was found between plasma leptin and BMI. Very low leptin concentrations were found in breast milk after centrifugation and the high concentrations reported previously were likely due to interference in the assay by milk fat. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma leptin concentrations are not higher in breast-fed than in formula-fed infants; however, sex and adiposity affect leptin concentrations even at this early age. (+info)
Supplements: questions to ask to reduce confusion.
(50/891)Written and oral statements concerning supplements are delivered daily to audiences that span the full spectrum of demographics. Yet the common reaction of these audiences to these statements is that they are receiving mixed messages. One source of this confusion could be greatly reduced if each statement concerning supplements always defined the specific parameters of the studies on which the statement is based. Those receiving information about supplements must be made aware that extrapolation of data for one form of a supplement to predict the result of another form many be harmful to one's health. If a statement concerning a supplement does not clearly define the route of delivery, its matrix, the quantity of compound, the purity of compound, and the physiologic condition of the recipient, the statement should be disregarded by all audiences. If the creators of all types of supplement information define these parameters, and if audiences critically review the information provided, confusion concerning supplements will be reduced. (+info)
Randomised trial of iodine intake and thyroid status in preterm infants.
(51/891)BACKGROUND: Low levels of circulating thyroid hormones have been associated with poorer general and neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm babies and it has been speculated that the association is causal. Low levels of circulating thyroid hormone have been reported after inadequate intake of iodine in preterm infants being fed milk formula. AIM: To investigate whether increased iodine intake from supplemented preterm formula would improve thyroid hormone levels in preterm babies (this study) and hence improve neurodevelopmental status (planned subsequent study). METHOD: A total of 121 preterm infants were entered into a randomised controlled trial of standard (68 microg/l) versus increased (272 microg/l) iodine in preterm formula. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable at recruitment. No evidence of an effect of the intervention on thyroid hormone levels was seen up to 41 weeks after conception. CONCLUSION: Calls for increased iodine content of preterm infant formulas are not justified by this study. (+info)
Assessment of vitamin B-12, folate, and vitamin B-6 status and relation to sulfur amino acid metabolism in neonates.
(52/891)BACKGROUND: Total serum homocysteine (tHcy) has been used as an indicator of intracellular vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, and folate status in adults, but data for neonates and infants are lacking. Vitamin B-12 deficiency may have fatal effects on neurologic development in infants; therefore, early diagnosis is crucial. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to provide a reference range for tHcy in neonates and to explore the relation of tHcy to 1) serum vitamin concentrations, 2) the product of the transsulfuration pathway (cysteine), and 3) nutritional factors. DESIGN: tHcy, cysteine, folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 were measured in 123 healthy, breast-fed neonates. The influence of nutrition (formula or human milk) on these variables was investigated in 60 infants. RESULTS: The mean (+/-SD) tHcy concentration was 7.8 +/- 3.1 micromol/L. tHcy showed a linear association with log vitamin B-12 (r = -0.64, P: < 0. 001), red blood cell folate (r = -0.33, P: < 0.001), and cysteine (r = 0.36, P: < 0.001). The strongest linear association was found between tHcy and the ratio of log cysteine to log vitamin B-12 (r = 0.71, P: < 0.0001). We found more neonates with probable tissue deficiencies of vitamin B-12 and folate on the basis of tHcy measurements than was expected from the analysis of serum vitamin concentrations alone (15.4% compared with 9.7%). Breast-fed infants had significantly lower vitamin B-12 concentrations and significantly higher serum tHcy and cysteine concentrations and ratios of log cysteine to log vitamin B-12 than did formula-fed infants (P: < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: tHcy can be used as a functional indicator of vitamin B-12 and folate status in neonates. The ratio of cysteine to vitamin B-12 can be used as an additional index of impaired intracellular Hcy metabolism. tHcy and cysteine concentrations in infants are affected by nutritional factors. (+info)
"Added lactose" and "added sucrose" cow's milk formulae in nutrition of low birthweight babies.
(53/891)During the manufacture of dried milks for infant feeding the composition of cow's milk may be modified by the addition of extra carbohydrate powder to lower the relative proportions of protein and minerals, and in practice various carbohydrates are used in a largely empirical manner. In other circumstances it is known that the quality of dietary carbohydrate affects intestinal tolerance, deposition of body fat (in rats), and concentrations of plasma lipids (in man). Therefore, in this study the effects of feeding newborn infants on added lactose formula and added sucrose formula have been investigated. 29 low birthweight babies were observed throughout the first 3 months of life. The added carbohydrate achieved a satisfactory composition in terms of mineral and protein concentration of the reconstituted milk, but the "added lactose" group experienced more diarrhoea and a greater degree of metabolic acidosis during the first week of life. The added lactose group was slightly fatter and the plasma triglyceride concentration slightly higher than in the "added sucrose" group. Despite teleological evidence in favour of lactose, we found no objective contraindication to the addition of sucrose to cow's milk in the manufacture of infant feeding formulae. Both milks contained only small quantities of linoleic acid and the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the plasma and adipose tissue lipids fell to low levels, but no clinical evidence of "essential fatty acid deficiency" was found. (+info)
Increased frequency of neonatal jaundice in a maternity hospital.
(54/891)The frequency of "significant" jaundice of the newborn at this hospital increased from 8-1% of all live births in 1971 to 12-1% in 1972 and 15-4% in 1973. This coincided with an increased use of oxytocic agents and epidural anaesthetics in labour, and a change in the artificial feed given to normal infants. A retrospective study of jaundiced infants born in 1972 failed to explain the increase in jaundice. Though the use of oxytocic agents was not the direct cause, since their use results in the delivery of more infants before 40 weeks of gestation it may be a contributory factor. The use of epidural anaesthetics was sastically related to the development of jaundice but the nature of the association was not clear. Mothers of infants who became jaundiced has a significantly higher frequency of poor past obstetric histories, but once again the association was not clear. The change in artificial feeds was excluded as a possible cause. (+info)
Antiretroviral interventions to reduce mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus: challenges for health systems, communities and society.
(55/891)This paper examines the ethical, economic and social issues that should be considered when antiretroviral interventions are being planned to reduce mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. Interventions aiming to reduce mother-to-child transmission should be concerned with the rights of both the child and the mother. Women should not be seen as vectors of transmission but as people entitled to adequate health care and social services in their own right. For women accepting mother-to-child transmission interventions it is important to consider their medical and emotional needs and to ensure that they are not stigmatized or subjected to abuse or abandonment following voluntary counselling and testing. Seropositive women who do not wish to continue with pregnancy should have access to facilities for safe termination if this is legal in the country concerned. Problems arise in relation to the basic requirements for introducing such interventions via the health services in developing countries. A framework is given for making decisions about implementation of interventions in health care systems with limited resources where there is a relatively high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection among pregnant women. (+info)
Development of 16S rRNA-based probes for the Coriobacterium group and the Atopobium cluster and their application for enumeration of Coriobacteriaceae in human feces from volunteers of different age groups.
(56/891)Two 16S rRNA-targeted probes were developed: one for the Coriobacterium group and the other for the Atopobium cluster (which comprises most of the Coriobacteriaceae species, including the Coriobacterium group). The new probes were based on sequences of three new Coriobacteriaceae strains isolated from human feces and clinical material and sequences from databases. Application of the probes to fecal samples showed that formula-fed infants had higher numbers of Coriobacterium group cells in their feces than breast-fed infants. In addition, based on the presented results, it is hypothesized that with the increasing age of a person, the diversity of Atopobium cluster species present in the feces increases. (+info)