Infant vision and retinal function in studies of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: methods, results, and implications. (33/891)

Animal and human studies have documented several effects of different dietary and tissue concentrations of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on retinal function and vision. The enhanced visual development associated with increased intakes of LCPUFAs, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), provides the strongest evidence for the importance of these fatty acids in infant nutrition. The 2 primary visual measures used to assess the efficacy of infant formula LCPUFA supplementation are the electroretinogram and visual acuity. This review briefly describes the methodology, neural basis, and interpretation of these measures, as well as other measures of visual development that may be used to extend the functional evaluation of infants fed formulas with different fatty acid compositions.  (+info)

Characterization and determination of origin of lactic acid bacteria from a sorghum-based fermented weaning food by analysis of soluble proteins and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting. (34/891)

The group that includes the lactic acid bacteria is one of the most diverse groups of bacteria known, and these organisms have been characterized extensively by using different techniques. In this study, 180 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from sorghum powder (44 strains) and from corresponding fermented (93 strains) and cooked fermented (43 strains) porridge samples that were prepared in 15 households were characterized by using biochemical and physiological methods, as well as by analyzing the electrophoretic profiles of total soluble proteins. A total of 58 of the 180 strains were Lactobacillus plantarum strains, 47 were Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains, 25 were Lactobacillus sake-Lactobacillus curvatus strains, 17 were Pediococcus pentosaceus strains, 13 were Pediococcus acidilactici strains, and 7 were Lactococcus lactis strains. L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides strains were the dominant strains during the fermentation process and were recovered from 87 and 73% of the households, respectively. The potential origins of these groups of lactic acid bacteria were assessed by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprint analysis.  (+info)

Short-term growth and substrate use in very-low-birth-weight infants fed formulas with different energy contents. (35/891)

BACKGROUND: Currently available preterm formulas with energy contents of 3350 kJ (800 kcal)/L promote weight and length gain at rates at or above intrauterine growth rates but disproportionately increase total body fat. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether fat accretion in formula-fed, very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants could be decreased and net protein gain maintained by reducing energy intakes from 502 kJ (80 kcal)*kg(-)(1)*d(-)(1) [normal-energy (NE) formula] to 419 kJ (100 kcal)*kg(-)(1)*d(-)(1) [low-energy (LE) formula] while providing similar protein intakes (3.3 g*kg(-)(1)*d(-)(1)). DESIGN: The study was a randomized, controlled trial enrolling 20 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) and 16 small-for-gestational-age (SGA) VLBW infants (mean birth weight: 1.1 kg; mean gestational age: 31 wk); energy expenditure and nutrient balance were measured at 4 wk of age and anthropometric measurements were made when infants weighed 2 kg. RESULTS: The percentage of fat in newly formed tissue was significantly lower in AGA infants fed the LE formula (n = 9) than in those fed the NE formula (n = 10) (9% compared with 23%; analysis of variance, P = 0.001). Energy expenditure was higher in AGA infants fed the NE formula than in those fed the LE formula. Skinfold thickness was markedly lower in AGA infants fed the LE formula than in those fed the NE formula, resulting in a lower estimated percentage body fat (8.0 +/- 1.9% and 10.8 +/- 3.5%, respectively; P < 0.05). Three of 6 SGA infants fed the LE formula were excluded during the study because of poor weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: Body composition can easily be altered by changing the energy intakes of formula-fed VLBW infants. Energy intakes in these infants should be >419 kJ (100 kcal)*kg(-)(1)*d(-)(1).  (+info)

Randomized diet in the neonatal period and growth performance until 7.5-8 y of age in preterm children. (36/891)

BACKGROUND: Preterm children are at high risk of poor growth performance. In 2 randomized trials, preterm infants fed preterm formula grew better in the neonatal period than those fed banked donor breast milk or standard term formula. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to test the hypothesis that for preterm infants, the neonatal period is a critical one for programming growth performance and that early diet influences long-term growth. DESIGN: A total of 926 preterm infants were recruited into 2 parallel, randomized trials of neonatal diet. In trial 1, infants were fed either banked donor breast milk or preterm formula whereas in trial 2, infants were fed either standard term formula or preterm formula. Within each trial, the allocated milk was the sole diet for some infants (study A), whereas for others it was a supplement to maternal breast milk, given when not enough expressed breast milk was available (study B). We followed up 781 of 833 survivors (94%) to age 7.5-8 y. Trained assessors obtained anthropometric measurements according to a standard protocol. RESULTS: Despite significantly better neonatal growth performance in infants fed preterm formula (compared with either banked donor breast milk or standard formula), early diet had no influence on weight, height, head circumference, or skinfold thicknesses at 9 or 18 mo postterm or at age 7.5-8 y. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the preterm period is not a critical window for nutritional programming of growth, which contrasts with evidence from these trials showing that early diet influences later neurodevelopment.  (+info)

Time course of and effect of dietary iron level on iron incorporation into erythrocytes by infants. (37/891)

As a part of our effort to explore various aspects of ferrokinetics in infancy, the present study was designed to determine the timing of entry of an orally ingested iron isotope into circulating erythrocytes, and the effect of the level of dietary iron [0.3 mg/100 kcal (418.4 kJ) vs. 1.8 mg/100 kcal] after isotope administration on erythrocyte incorporation of the isotope. We administered the stable isotope, (58)Fe, orally to 56-d-old and 168-d-old infants. All infants were fed a low-iron formula (LF) before and until 5 h after isotope administration. Thereafter, half the infants were fed a formula high in iron (HF group) while the remaining infants continued to receive the LF (LF group) for an additional 28 d. The quantity of (58)Fe in circulating erythrocytes increased from 14 to 28 d after isotope administration was nearly constant from 28 through 84 d of age (plateau value) and decreased between 84 and 112 d. Erythrocyte incorporation of (58)Fe was greater by the 168-d-old infants than by the 56-d-old infants, presumably because of the lesser iron stores of the older infants. In the 56-d-old infants, erythrocyte incorporation of (58)Fe was greater by the LF than by the HF group, but this difference was not significant in the 168-d-old infants. Thus, at least in younger infants, the level of iron intake after administration of an iron isotope affects erythrocyte incorporation of the isotope. The fact that less isotope was present in erythrocytes 112 d than 84 d after administration indicates that the life span of erythrocytes of infants, even beyond the immediate newborn period, is less than the 120-d life span of erythrocytes in the adult.  (+info)

Predictors of micronutrient status among six- to twelve-month-old breast-fed Ghanaian infants. (38/891)

This study describes the factors associated with hemoglobin and plasma ferritin, zinc and retinol concentrations and erythrocyte riboflavin status among 208 Ghanaian infants who participated in a complementary feeding intervention trial from 6 to 12 mo of age. Anthropometric, morbidity and dietary data were collected regularly from 1 to 12 mo; blood samples were collected at 6 and 12 mo. The prevalence of low micronutrient status at 6 and 12 mo, respectively, was as follows: hemoglobin <100 g/L, 30 and 34%; plasma ferritin <12 microg/L, 17 and 43%; plasma zinc <10.7 micromol/L, 4 and 6%; plasma retinol <0.7 micromol/L, 26 and 26%; erythrocyte riboflavin <200 umol/L of packed red cells, 14 and 10%. Multiple regression was used to identify factors significantly associated with micronutrient status. From 6 to 12 mo, fever prevalence was associated with a decrease in hemoglobin, but an increase in erythrocyte riboflavin concentrations, and diarrhea prevalence was related to a decrease in plasma retinol. Seasonal differences were evident for most of the indicators of micronutrient status, and elevated C-reactive protein levels (indicative of recent infection) were related to lower hemoglobin, retinol and zinc concentrations but higher ferritin and erythrocyte riboflavin concentrations. Weight at birth or at 1 mo of age was positively related to iron, zinc and vitamin A status, but a more rapid weight gain was associated with depletion of iron stores. Socioeconomic status was related to higher hemoglobin, riboflavin and zinc concentrations. The feeding of a micronutrient-fortified food was positively associated with plasma ferritin and retinol concentrations at 12 mo. These results suggest that prenatal factors, socioeconomic status, dietary intake and morbidity all influence infant micronutrient status, and that fortification of complementary foods is one potential avenue for preventing deficiencies.  (+info)

Dietary zinc and iron sources, physical growth and cognitive development of breastfed infants. (39/891)

Iron and zinc are trace minerals that are of critical importance to the young infant for normal growth and development. Exclusive feeding of human milk provides adequate amounts of both of these nutrients for normal term infants for approximately the first 6 mo. of life. Current recommendations for introduction of complementary foods at this age do not emphasize the order of introduction of specific foods because the infant's gastrointestinal tract is considered mature at this time. Consideration of nutritional needs at 6 mo. has generally focused on the increasing risk of iron deficiency the longer the diet is without an additional source of iron. Recently, there has been more recognition of the risk of zinc deficiency in the second half of the first year of life in breastfed infants. Review of common feeding practices indicates that early complementary foods are typically iron fortified but low in zinc. Several studies have now investigated the effects of meat as an earlier complementary food on iron and zinc status. Results of these studies, although requiring further verification, suggest that increased meat intake by breastfed infants >6 mo. old would adequately support both iron and zinc requirements.  (+info)

Experiences of breastfeeding and vulnerability among a group of HIV-positive women in Durban, South Africa. (40/891)

While international guidelines are currently being drawn up about HIV and infant feeding practices, and national and regional guidelines are under discussion in South Africa, there have been remarkably few studies that have sought to elicit HIV-positive mothers' experiences of breastfeeding and of paediatric infection. There is an urgent need to document this 'grass roots' knowledge in different sites, and for this data to be used to inform policy development, and for advocacy and counselling purposes. This qualitative investigation reports on the experiences and decisions taken around breastfeeding by a peer support group of 13 HIV-positive mothers meeting at King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban. In this study, the particular focus of information-giving and decision-making as to breast or formula feed is concerned with the impact on individual HIV-positive women and their babies. The most significant finding is that at no stage during their pregnancy were any of these mothers given information about the risks of HIV transmission through breastmilk. The study data were elicited in an in-depth group discussion, and individual women were invited to re-enact their stories in a follow-up discussion for clarification purposes. The women also discussed how they dealt with problems surrounding confidentiality in cases where few have been able to disclose their status to the extended family. There have been renewed calls for further investment in counsellors, with an enhanced role for community activists as peer educators. While there are severe resource constraints and low morale among many overworked nurses, one of the general problems in hospital settings remains the vertical health paradigm. This does not accommodate women's experiences, preferences, social networks and lay knowledge, and inhibits many women from becoming full participants in decisions affecting their own and their family's health.  (+info)