Lack of association between duration of breast-feeding or introduction of cow's milk and development of islet autoimmunity. (25/891)

The hypothesis that early exposure to cow's milk or lack of breast-feeding predisposes to type 1 diabetes remains controversial. We aimed to determine prospectively the relationship of, first, duration of exclusive breast-feeding and total duration of breast-feeding, and second, introduction of cow's milk protein as infant formula, cow's milk, or dairy products, to the development of islet antibodies in early life. Some 317 children with a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes were followed prospectively from birth for 29 months (4-73). Mothers kept a home diary and answered infant feeding questionnaires at 6-month intervals. No systematic feeding advice was given. Insulin autoantibodies (normal range <5.5%), anti-GAD antibodies (<5.0 U), and anti-IA2 antibodies (<3.0 U) were measured at 6-month intervals. Cox proportional hazards model of survival analysis detected no significant difference between children who did not develop islet antibodies (225 of 317 [71%]), children with one islet antibody raised once (52 of 317 [16.4%]), children with one antibody raised repeatedly (18 of 317 [5.7%]), or children with two or more antibodies raised (22 of 317 [6.9%]), in terms of duration of exclusive breast-feeding, total duration of breast-feeding, or introduction of cow's milk-based infant formulas, cow's milk, or dairy products (relative risk: 0.91-1.09). Four of the children with two or more islet antibodies developed type 1 diabetes. We conclude that there is no prospective association between duration of breast-feeding or introduction of cow's milk and the development of islet autoimmunity in high-risk children.  (+info)

Double-blind, randomized trial of a synthetic triacylglycerol in formula-fed term infants: effects on stool biochemistry, stool characteristics, and bone mineralization. (26/891)

BACKGROUND: The low sn-2 palmitate content of infant formulas results in formation of fatty acid calcium soaps in the stools and reduced calcium absorption. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to test the hypotheses that increasing the proportion of sn-2 palmitate in formula for term infants would result in greater skeletal mineral deposition and reduced stool hardness. DESIGN: Healthy term neonates were randomly assigned to receive standard formula (n = 103) or formula containing 50% sn-2 palmitate (high-sn-2 formula; n = 100) for 12 wk. One hundred twenty breast-fed infants were also studied. The main outcome measures were 1) radial (single-photon absorptiometry) and whole-body (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) bone mineral content (WBBMC) at 12 wk and 2) stool frequency, volume, and consistency at 6 and 12 wk. Secondary outcome measures included stool fatty acid content. RESULTS: Infants receiving high-sn-2 formula had higher WBBMC (128.1 +/- 9.7 compared with 122.7 +/- 10.1 g, adjusted for size and sex), softer stools at 6 and 12 wk, and a lower proportion of stool soap fatty acids than did infants receiving the control formula. Breast-fed infants had adjusted WBBMC values (128.3 +/- 9.1 g) similar to those of infants fed high-sn-2 formula and significantly higher than those of infants fed the control formula. CONCLUSIONS: Changing the stereoisomeric structure of palmitate in infant formula resulted in higher WBBMC, reduced stool soap fatty acids, and softer stools more like those of breast-fed infants. The greater bone mass measured could be important if it persists beyond the trial period; this merits further investigation.  (+info)

Infant feeding, early weight gain, and risk of type 1 diabetes. Childhood Diabetes in Finland (DiMe) Study Group. (27/891)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the increased risk of type 1 diabetes conferred by an early introduction of cow's milk supplements can be mediated by accelerated growth in formula-fed infants. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: All children < or = 14 years of age who were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes from September 1986 to April 1989 were invited to participate in the study. Birth date- and sex-matched control children were randomly selected from the Finnish Population Registry. At least three weight measurements from the first year of life were obtained for 435 full-term diabetic subjects and 386 control subjects from well-baby clinics and school health care units. RESULTS: Increase in body weight was greater in the diabetic girls than in the control girls, and the difference increased from 111 g (95% CI 0-218, P = 0.04) at 1 month of age to 286 g (95% CI 123-450, P = 0.0006) at 7 months. For boys, the difference in weight between the diabetic subjects and the control subjects remained stable during infancy (difference 95 g, 95% CI-2-205, P = 0.09). Increased weight was associated on average with a 1.5-fold risk of type 1 diabetes. Early introduction of formula feeding (< 3 vs. > or = 3 months) was also associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes after adjustment for the individual weight gain curve (adjusted odds ratio 1.53, 95% CI 1.1-2.2). No evidence for interaction was observed. CONCLUSIONS: These observations indicate that an early exposure to cow's milk formula-feeding and rapid growth in infancy are independent risk factors of childhood type 1 diabetes.  (+info)

Cheek cell phospholipids in human infants: a marker of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids in the diet, plasma, and red blood cells. (28/891)

BACKGROUND: Assessment of essential fatty acid status requires collection of blood or adipose tissue samples. However, these invasive techniques cannot always be used in studies involving infants, young children, or subjects from whom it is difficult to obtain blood. A body tissue that is easy to access is the buccal mucosa (cheek cells). OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the degree to which fatty acids of cheek cells reflect the fatty acid content of plasma, red blood cells, and the diet. DESIGN: Thirty-one infants aged 12 mo were enrolled. Five infants were fed human milk and 26 infants received formulas that provided a wide range of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intakes. Cheek cells were collected on a small piece of gauze by gently swabbing the inside of the cheek 3 times. Lipids were extracted from the gauze and the phospholipid fatty acid content of the cheek cells was determined. RESULTS: Cheek cell DHA and arachidonic acid in phospholipids were significantly correlated with DHA and arachidonic acid in plasma [r = 0.61 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.37 (P <0.05), respectively], red blood cells [r = 0.58 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.37 (P < 0.05), respectively], and the diet [r = 0.65 (P < 0.001) and r = 0. 51 (P < 0.01), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: Given these correlations and the ease and noninvasive nature of this technique, cheek cell fatty acids may serve as a marker of the essential fatty acid content, especially of DHA and arachidonic acid, in plasma, red blood cells, and the diet.  (+info)

A randomized trial of different ratios of linoleic to alpha-linolenic acid in the diet of term infants: effects on visual function and growth. (29/891)

BACKGROUND: There are nutritional recommendations that the ratio of linoleic to alpha-linolenic acid (LA:ALA) in formula for term infants be between 5:1 and 15:1. These recommendations were made in the absence of data on functional or clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We compared the fatty acid status, visual evoked potential (VEP) acuity, and growth of term infants fed formula containing an LA:ALA of 10:1 or 5:1 with those of a breast-fed reference cohort. DESIGN: Formula-fed infants were allocated randomly in a double-blind fashion to receive formula with an LA:ALA of either 10:1 (16.9:1.7; n = 36) or 5:1 (16.3:3.3; n = 37) from near birth to 34 wk of age. Increased ALA was attained by replacing soy oil with low-erucic acid cannola oil. A parallel group of breast-fed infants was also recruited. Infant growth and fatty acid status were assessed at 6, 16, and 34 wk of age. VEP acuity was assessed at 16 and 34 wk. RESULTS: Infants fed the 5:1 formula had greater docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrations in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids than did infants fed the 10:1 formula, but DHA concentrations of infants fed the 5:1 formula remained less than those in breast-fed infants. The VEP acuity of all formula-fed and breast-fed infants was not significantly different at 16 and 34 wk of age. At birth, infants fed the 5:1 formula were heavier, were longer, and had a greater head circumference than infants assigned to the 10:1 formula group; this differential was maintained throughout the trial. The rate of gain in weight, length, and head circumference was not significantly different between the 2 formula-fed groups, although breast-fed infants had lower weight and length gains than did formula-fed infants between 16 and 34 wk of age. CONCLUSION: Lowering the LA:ALA in formula from 10:1 to 5:1 by using low-erucic acid canola oil resulted in a modest increase in plasma DHA but had no effect on VEP acuity or growth rate.  (+info)

Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. (30/891)

In the past 2 decades, views about dietary n-3 fatty acids have moved from speculation about their functions to solid evidence that they are not only essential nutrients but also may favorably modulate many diseases. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), which is a vital component of the phospholipids of cellular membranes, especially in the brain and retina, is necessary for their proper functioning. n-3 Fatty acids favorably affect atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, inflammatory disease, and perhaps even behavioral disorders. The 38 articles in this supplement document the importance of n-3 fatty acids in both health and disease.  (+info)

Essential fat requirements of preterm infants. (31/891)

The interest in factors that modify early infant development has led investigators to focus on n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in the past 2 decades. The presence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) in breast milk, compared with their absence from infant formulas available in the United States, has prompted clinical trials designed to examine whether LCPUFA enrichment of infant formula has beneficial effects on maturational events of the visual system. These trials have shown significant functional advantages of LCPUFA supplementation for preterm infants, whereas benefits for full-term infants remain controversial. The growth and safety of preterm infants was not compromised by LCPUFA enrichment, although these issues remain to be resolved in clinical trials with full-term infants.  (+info)

n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid requirements of term infants. (32/891)

The benchmarks for human nutrient requirements are the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs). However, the RDIs are set to prevent a clinical deficiency state in an otherwise healthy population and there are few nutrient recommendations set with the goal of achieving an optimal or maximal state of nutrition and health. This is becoming an increasing challenge with the introduction of many nutraceuticals and functional foods, a prime example being the debate surrounding the introduction of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) into infant formulas. Most expert nutrition committees have used the fatty acid composition of breast milk as a basis for recommendations for infant formulas, with little information on the minimum absolute requirement for essential PUFAs. It has been difficult to determine a minimum requirement for fatty acids because 1) LCPUFAs can be synthesized from precursor fatty acids, 2) plasma n-3 LCPUFA concentrations representing deficiency and sufficiency are not clearly defined, and 3) there are no recognized clinical tests for n-3 LCPUFA deficiency and sufficiency. Therefore, there is a clear need to associate a measure of LCPUFA status with a specific functional outcome before any recommendations can be made for achieving optimal or maximal LCPUFA status.  (+info)