Plasma lipoprotein fatty acids are altered by the positional distribution of fatty acids in infant formula triacylglycerols and human milk. (17/891)

BACKGROUND: Triacylglycerol digestion involves hydrolysis of fatty acids esterified at the glycerol 1,3 positions by gastric and pancreatic lipase to produce 2-monoacylglycerols and unesterified fatty acids, which are then absorbed, reesterified to triacylglycerol, and secreted in chylomicrons. Palmitic acid (16:0) is predominantly esterified to the 2 position of human milk triacylglycerol but to the 1,3 positions in the oils used in infant formulas. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether the position of 16:0 in human milk and infant formula triacylglycerol influences the position of fatty acids in postprandial plasma chylomicron triacylglycerol. DESIGN: Full-term infants were fed formula with 25-27% 16:0 with either 39% of the 16:0(synthesized triacylglycerol) or 6% of the 16:0 (standard formula) esterified at the triacylglycerol 2 position, or were breast-fed (23% 16:0, 81% at the triacylglycerol 2 position) from birth to 120 d of age. Chylomicron fatty acids and plasma lipids were assessed at 30 and 120 d of age. RESULTS: Infants fed the synthesized triacylglycerol formula, standard formula, or breast milk had 15.8%,8.3%, and 28.0% 16:0 in the chylomicron triacylglycerol 2 position (P < 0.05). These results suggest that >/=50% of the dietary triacylglycerol 2-position 16:0 is conserved through digestion, absorption, and chylomicron triacylglycerol synthesis in breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Infants fed the synthesized triacylglycerol formula had significantly lower HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I and higher apolipoprotein B concentrations than infants fed the standard formula. CONCLUSION: Dietary triacylglycerol fatty acid distribution may alter lipoprotein metabolism in young infants.  (+info)

Effects of exogenous surfactant on acute lung injury induced by intratracheal instillation of infant formula or human breast milk in rabbits. (18/891)

BACKGROUND: An animal experimental model of acute lung injury after intratracheal instillation of acidified milk products has been recently demonstrated. Exogenous administration of surfactant has proved to be successful treatment for acute lung injury induced by many causes including acid aspiration. The authors conducted this study to investigate whether exogenous surfactant can reduce the magnitude of lung damage induced in rabbits by acidified milk products. METHODS: The lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of acidified human breast milk or acidified infant formula (0.8 ml/kg, pH 1.8). Thirty minutes after the insult, some animals were treated with intratracheal surfactant 100 or 200 mg/kg. Lung compliance and alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradient were recorded during ventilation. After 4 or 12 h, the lungs were excised to determine physiologic and histologic lung damage. Albumin, interleukin-8, and eicosanoids in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and superoxide production by neutrophils were measured. RESULTS: The acidified milk products increased A-aD(O2)(550+/-52 and 156+/-28 mmHg; mean+/-SD at 4 h in saline solution and infant formula groups, respectively), lung wet-to-dry weight ratio (6.6+/-0.5 and 5.6 +/- 0.2), %neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (84+/-4% and 8+/-20%), and decreased compliance (0.76+/-0.09 and 1.90+/-0.11 ml/cm H2O). Surfactant improved these variables in a dose-dependent manner (A-aDO2 = 363+/-50 and 237+/-55 mmHg in 100-mg/kg and 200-mg/kg surfactant groups). Surfactant attenuated extensive histologic changes caused by the milk products. Superoxide production was less in rabbits receiving surfactant than in those not receiving it. CONCLUSION: Exogenous surfactant improved physiologic, histologic, and biochemical lung injury induced by acidified milk products in a dose-dependent manner. The effectiveness of surfactant may be caused, in part, by inhibition of neutrophils' sequestration and activation. These data indicate that intratracheal instillation of surfactant may be a promising therapeutic modality in acute lung injury resulting from aspiration of acidified milk products.  (+info)

Effects of dietary viscosity and energy density on total daily energy consumption by young Peruvian children. (19/891)

BACKGROUND: Results of prior studies of the effect of viscosity reduction of high-energy-density, starch-containing diets on young children's energy intakes are inconsistent, possibly because of differences in the characteristics of the unmodified diets with which the low-viscosity diets were compared. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the effects of dietary viscosity and energy density on total daily energy consumption by young, non-breast-fed children. DESIGN: We measured the amount of food consumed and the duration of meals during 3 substudies, in each of which 3 study diets were offered for 4 consecutive days each in random sequence: high energy density, high viscosity (HD-HV); high energy density, low viscosity (HD-LV); and low energy density, low viscosity (LD-LV). The viscosity and energy density of the unmodified starch-containing HD-HV diet were varied across substudies to determine whether the effect of amylase liquefaction was related to the initial characteristics of the HD-HV diet. The viscosity of the HV diets ranged from 79000 to 568000 mPa s; energy density of the HD diets ranged from approximately 4.18 to 4.93 kJ (1.00-1.18 kcal)/g. Viscosity of the LV diets was approximately 3000 mPa s and the energy density of the LD diets was approximately 2.47 kJ (0.6 kcal)/g. RESULTS: In each substudy, children consumed more of the LD-LV diet (g kg body wt(-)(1) d(-)(1)) than of the other diets and more of the HD-LV diet than of the HD-HV diet (P < 0.001). Energy consumption from the HD-LV diet was greater than from the other diets (P < 0.001), but the energy intakes from the latter diets were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: Amylase liquefaction of HD-HV porridges resulted in increased energy consumption by young children.  (+info)

Blood lipid concentrations of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids at birth determine their relative postnatal changes in term infants fed breast milk or formula. (20/891)

BACKGROUND: Factors other than dietary fatty acids could be involved in the variability observed in blood docosahexaenoate (22:6n-3) and arachidonate (20:4n-6) status in formula-fed infants. OBJECTIVE: We considered the 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6 status at birth to be one of these factors and studied its influence on postnatal changes in term infants fed 4 different diets. DESIGN: The blood phospholipid composition was determined at birth and on day 42 of feeding in 83 term infants fed breast milk, nonsupplemented formula, or 2 different 22:6n-3-supplemented formulas. Relations between 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6 status at birth and their relative postnatal changes, calculated by the difference between status at the end of the feeding period (6 wk of age) and at birth, were assessed. RESULTS: Postnatal changes in the plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6 were negatively related to their respective concentrations at birth (P < 0.01) and the slopes of the regression lines were not significantly affected by the type of milk ingested. Adjusted mean values for phospholipid 22:6n-3 in nonsupplemented-formula-fed infants and for 20:4n-6 in formula-fed infants decreased significantly more than they did in the other infant groups (P < 0.02). The status at birth and the type of milk ingested explained 33-64% and 7-47%, respectively, of the variability in postnatal changes. CONCLUSIONS: The status of 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6 at birth in term infants is one of the major determinants of postnatal changes in these fatty acids. This finding indicates that research is required to characterize environmental, genetic, or both factors, which, in addition to maternal diet, could influence fatty acid status at birth.  (+info)

A randomised controlled study of the effect of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on stool hardness during formula feeding. (21/891)

BACKGROUND: The passage of hard stools is significantly more common in formula fed infants than breast fed infants and this might be the result of differences in fat absorption between breast and formula fed infants. Experimental studies indicate that long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) might influence fat hydrolysis and absorption. AIM: To investigate the relation of LCPUFA supplementation to stool frequency and consistency during the first 4 months of life. DESIGN: Double blind, randomised, controlled study of 88 healthy infants. RESULTS: 1905 stools (858 from LCPUFA supplemented infants, 1047 non-supplemented infants) were examined. The mean (SEM) number of stools passed for each three day study period was significantly less in the LCPUFA group (5.5 (0.3) v 6.2 (0.2); p < 0.05). In both groups, there was a significant reduction in the number of stools passed with age (p < 0.001). During the first 3 months, the mean (SEM) percentage of hard stools passed by infants in the LCPUFA supplemented group was 7.7 (2.1) compared with 19.2 (2.8) for unsupplemented infants (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hard stools is significantly reduced in infants fed a formula that is supplemented with LCPUFAs.  (+info)

Liquid concentrates are lower in bioavailable tryptophan than powdered infant formulas, and tryptophan supplementation of formulas increases brain tryptophan and serotonin in rats. (22/891)

The bioavailability of tryptophan in powdered and/or liquid concentrate forms of milk-based infant formulas was determined by studying rat growth response by using a slope ratio method (food conversion efficiency: weight gain/food consumed vs. tryptophan consumed). A gelatin basal diet formulated to be adequate in all nutrients, except tryptophan (0.03%), for rat growth was supplemented with graded levels of crystalline L-tryptophan (0.02, 0. 04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12 and 0.14%, standard diets) or infant formulas providing 0.04 and 0.08% supplemental tryptophan (test diets). These diets were fed to weanling rats for 2 wk. Tryptophan bioavailabilities of various formulas varied from 83 to 95%, with some of the liquid concentrates having the lowest values. The levels of bioavailable tryptophan in the liquid concentrate forms (9.7-12.6 mg/g protein) and the powdered forms (11.1-13.1 mg/g protein) were considerably lower than those of human milk (17-19 mg/g protein). Supplementation of the liquid concentrates with graded levels of L-tryptophan (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0%) had no effect on protein quality indices, based on rat growth, but resulted in a dose-related increase in the concentrations of tryptophan in the plasma and brain and of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid in the brains of rats. This study supports further research to investigate the influence of tryptophan supplementation of infant formulas, to more closely simulate tryptophan composition of human milk, on tryptophan metabolites and their potential related effects on sleep latency and neurobehavioral developments in infants.  (+info)

The influence of early experience with vanillin on food preference later in life. (23/891)

A study with 133 adults, who had been breast-fed or bottle-fed after birth, shows that neonatal experience with vanilla influences preferences for other foods in later life.  (+info)

Dual pH probe monitoring versus single pH probe monitoring in infants on milk feeds: the impact on diagnosis. (24/891)

OBJECTIVES: Oesophageal pH monitoring is the gold standard technique for the detection of gastro-oesophageal reflux in adults and children. A standard parameter used to define "abnormal" reflux is the percentage of recording time for which the gastric pH is < 4. This study investigated the relevance of this measure in infants on regular milk feeds whose gastric contents and refluxate will be neutral for most of the recording time. METHODS: Simultaneous oesophageal and gastric pH monitoring was carried out on all infants who were milk fed exclusively and admitted to hospital for suspected gastro-oesophageal reflux. In vitro studies were performed to establish the buffering capacities of the fruit juice, Dioralyte (a glucose electrolyte solution), breast milk, and milk formula feeds available on the paediatric wards. RESULTS: Complete sets of data were obtained from 30 babies with a mean age of 4 months. Gastric pH was 4 increased this value to 17.81 (2. 46)%. Using a cut off point of 10%, 11 of the 30 babies would have been diagnosed positive for reflux using the conventional method; however, recalculation by ignoring the time for which gastric pH was high doubled this to 22 positive for reflux. CONCLUSION: Combined oesophageal and gastric pH monitoring greatly increases the number of positive results from tests in infants on regular milk feeds.  (+info)