Effect of iron-fortified candies on the iron status of children aged 4-6 y in East Jakarta, Indonesia.
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency anemia is the most prevalent nutrition problem in young children. One possible strategy to prevent iron deficiency anemia in this population group is the fortification of affordable food. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to assess whether iron-fortified candies can improve iron status and are acceptable to children aged 4-6 y. DESIGN: A double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted in Jakarta, INDONESIA: The children were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: a fortified group (n = 57) and a placebo group (n = 60). Every week for 12 wk, 30 g (10 pieces) candy was given to the children. The candy given to the fortified group contained 1 mg elemental Fe/g and very small amounts of other vitamins and minerals. RESULTS: The hemoglobin concentration of the fortified group increased by 10.2 g/L (95% CI: 8.3, 12 g/L) whereas that of the placebo group increased by 4.0 g/L (2.0, 6.0 g/L; P < 0.001). Anemia prevalence decreased from 50.9% at the start of the intervention to 8.8% after 12 wk of intervention in the fortified group (P < 0.001) and from 43.3% to 26.7% in the placebo group (P < 0.05). After 12 wk of intervention, the serum ferritin concentration was 71% higher than at baseline in the fortified group and 28% higher in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Acceptability of the iron-fortified candies was good. The per capita cost of the supplement was approximately US$0.96-1.20 for the 12 wk of intervention. CONCLUSION: Iron-fortified candies were effective for improving the iron status of young children and might be an affordable way to combat iron deficiency in children of low-to-middle income groups. (+info)
Performance of the OptiMAL assay for detection and identification of malaria infections in asymptomatic residents of Irian Jaya, Indonesia.
The OptiMAL assay, a new immunochromatographic "dipstick" test for malaria based on detection of Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH), is purported to detect infections of approximately 200 parasites/microL of blood and to differentiate between Plasmodium falciparum and non-P. falciparum. We evaluated OptiMAL performance by comparing the test strip interpretations of two independent readers with consensus results obtained independently by expert malaria microscopists. Unbiased measures of sensitivity were derived by applying the OptiMAL test for detection and differentiation of light, asymptomatic infections by P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. OptiMAL readings were separated in time to determine whether the reaction signal was stable. Microscopy identified infections in 225 of 505 individuals screened; those with P. falciparum (n = 170) averaged 354 asexual forms/microL and P. vivax/Plasmodium malariae (n = 112) averaged 216 asexual forms/microL of blood. Concordance between OptiMAL and microscopy was 81% and 78% by the two independent readings. The assay's sensitivity for detection of any malaria species was 60.4% and 70.2% respectively and specificity was 97% and 89%. Most cases identified by microscopy as P. falciparum were graded as negative or non-falciparum by both OptiMAL readers. OptiMAL false negatives as well as misidentifications were related to low parasitemias (< 500/microL). The OptiMAL assay demonstrated 88-92% sensitivity for detecting infections of 500-1,000 parasites/microL, a range covering the mean parasitemia of primary symptomatic P. falciparum infections in malaria-naive Indonesian transmigrants. This device was markedly less sensitive than expert microscopy for discriminating between malaria species and is presently unsuited for use as an epidemiological screening tool. The OptiMAL assay is not approved for diagnostic use but is commercially available for research purposes only. (+info)
Poor food hygiene and housing as risk factors for typhoid fever in Semarang, Indonesia.
To identify risk factors for typhoid fever in Semarang city and its surroundings, 75 culture-proven typhoid fever patients discharged 2 weeks earlier from hospital and 75 controls were studied. Control subjects were neighbours of cases with no history of typhoid fever, not family members, randomly selected and matched for gender and age. Both cases and controls were interviewed at home by the same trained interviewer using a standardized questionnaire. A structured observation of their living environment inside and outside the house was performed during the visit and home drinking water samples were tested bacteriologically. Univariate analysis showed the following risk factors for typhoid fever: never or rarely washing hands before eating (OR = 3.28; 95% CI = 1.41-7.65); eating outdoors at least once a week (OR = 3.00; 95% CI = 1.09-8.25); eating outdoors at a street food stall or mobile food vendor (OR = 3.86; 95% CI = 1.30-11.48); consuming ice cubes in beverage in the 2-week period before getting ill (OR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.09-8.25) and buying ice cubes from a street vendor (OR = 5.82; 95% CI = 1.69-20.12). Water quality and living environment of cases were worse than that of controls, e.g. cases less often used clean water for taking a bath (OR = 6.50; 95% CI = 1.47-28.80), for brushing teeth (OR = 4.33; 95% CI = 1.25-15.20) and for drinking (OR = 3.67; 95% CI = 1.02-13.14). Cases tended to live in houses without water supply from the municipal network (OR=11.00; 95% CI = 1.42-85.2), with open sewers (OR = 2.80; 95% CI = 1.0-7.77) and without tiles in the kitchen (OR = 2.67; 95% CI = 1.04-6.81). Multivariate analysis showed that living in a house without water supply from the municipal network (OR = 29.18; 95% CI = 2.12-400.8) and with open sewers (OR = 7.19; 95% CI = 1.33-38.82) was associated with typhoid fever. Never or rarely washing hands before eating (OR = 3.97; 95% CI = 1.22-12.93) and being unemployed or having a part-time job (OR = 31.3; 95% CI = 3.08-317.4) also were risk factors. In this population typhoid fever was associated with poor housing and inadequate food and personal hygiene. (+info)
Estimating the prevalence of anaemia: a comparison of three methods.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the most effective method for analysing haemoglobin concentrations in large surveys in remote areas, and to compare two methods (indirect cyanmethaemoglobin and HemoCue) with the conventional method (direct cyanmethaemoglobin). METHODS: Samples of venous and capillary blood from 121 mothers in Indonesia were compared using all three methods. FINDINGS: When the indirect cyanmethaemoglobin method was used the prevalence of anaemia was 31-38%. When the direct cyanmethaemoglobin or HemoCue method was used the prevalence was 14-18%. Indirect measurement of cyanmethaemoglobin had the highest coefficient of variation and the largest standard deviation of the difference between the first and second assessment of the same blood sample (10-12 g/l indirect measurement vs 4 g/l direct measurement). In comparison with direct cyanmethaemoglobin measurement of venous blood, HemoCue had the highest sensitivity (82.4%) and specificity (94.2%) when used for venous blood. CONCLUSIONS: Where field conditions and local resources allow it, haemoglobin concentration should be assessed with the direct cyanmethaemoglobin method, the gold standard. However, the HemoCue method can be used for surveys involving different laboratories or which are conducted in relatively remote areas. In very hot and humid climates, HemoCue microcuvettes should be discarded if not used within a few days of opening the container containing the cuvettes. (+info)
Chloroquine/doxycycline combination versus chloroquine alone, and doxycycline alone for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in northeastern Irian Jaya, Indonesia.
Combination therapy is one method of overcoming the global challenge of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We conducted a hospital-based 28-day in vivo test comparing chloroquine/doxycycline to chloroquine or doxycycline alone for treating P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Eighty-nine patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were randomized to standard dose chloroquine (n = 30), doxycycline (100 mg every 12 hours [7 days], n = 20), or chloroquine with doxycycline (n = 39); corresponding numbers for vivax malaria (n = 63) were 23, 16, 24. Endpoints were parasite sensitivity (S) or resistance (RI/RII/RIII). Of the 105 evaluable patients, chloroquine/doxycycline cured (S) 20/22 (90.9% [95% CI 78.9-100%]) patients with P. falciparum malaria; 2/22 (9.1% [0-21%]) were RIII resistant. Doxycycline cured 11/17 (64.7% [42.0-87.4%]) patients, and chloroquine 4/20 (20% [2.5-37.5%]). Against P. vivax, chloroquine/doxycycline cured (S) 12/17 (70.6% [48.9-92.2%]) patients, doxycycline 4/12 (33.3% [6.6-59.9%]), and chloroquine 5/17 (29.4% [7.7-51.1%]). Chloroquine/doxycycline was effective against P. falciparum but only modestly effective against P. vivax. These findings support the use of chloroquine/doxycycline as an inexpensive alternative to mefloquine for treating chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum but not chloroquine-resistant P. vivax in this setting. (+info)
Cycle of the seminiferous epithelium in the Java fruit bat (Pteropus vampyrus) and the Japanese lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus cornutus).
The cycle of the seminiferous epithelium in the Java fruit bat, Pteropus vampyrus, and the Japanese lesser horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus cornutus, was investigated by light microscopy and the characteristics of spermiogenesis were compared between these two species. In the Java fruit bat, the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium was divided into 11 stages and developing spermatids were subdivided into 13 steps. While in the Japanese lesser horseshoe bat, the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium was divided into 10 stages and developing spermatids were subdivided into 13 steps. Excepting slight morphological differences, the characteristics of acrosomal formation in both species were almost similar with each other. In the Java fruit bat after stage VII, the acrosome gradually elongated, flattened and finally became scoop-like in shape. In the Japanese lesser horseshoe bat after stage VIII, the acrosome elongated, flattened and then slightly shortened. Before spermiation, the acrosome became long spatula-like in shape. The elongation and flattening of spermatids in these two species were similar to those in insectivores. The finding may reflect the fact that the order Chiroptera is phylogenetically close to the order Insectivora. (+info)
Toxins and colonization factor antigens of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli among residents of Jakarta, Indonesia.
Infection caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) poses a serious health problem among children and adults in developing countries. Colonization of the small intestinal mucosa by ETEC strains is mediated by antigenically specific fimbriae, also known as colonization factor antigens (CFA). The significance of this study arises from reports that active and passive immunization with ETEC strains harboring CFAs has previously been shown to induce protective immunity against diarrhea in animal models. The aim of this study was to determine toxin-associated CFAs of ETEC isolated from a diarrheal disease case-control study in Jakarta, Indonesia. Thirteen hundred and twenty-three diarrheic and control patients with lactose-fermenting colonies were screened by ganglioside GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (GM1-ELISA) for heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) toxins. Two hundred and forty-six (19%) ETEC isolates identified by GM1-ELISA for the LT/ST toxins were screened for CFAs by Dot blot assay using monoclonal antibodies against CFA/I, II, and IV and against the putative colonization antigens (PCF) PCFO159, PCFO166, CS7, and CS17. Of the 246 ETEC isolates, 177 (72%) elaborated ST, 56 (23%) produced LT, while 13 (5%) elicited both the ST and LT toxins. CFA testing of the 246 ETEC isolates showed that 21 (8%) expressed CFA/I, 3 (1%) exhibited CFA/II, 14 (6%) elaborated CFA/IV, while 7 (3%) expressed PCFO159 and PCFO159 plus CS5. No CFAs or PCFs could be associated with 201 (82%) of the ETEC strains. This report documents the types of CFAs associated with ETEC strains in Jakarta, Indonesia. These data may help current research efforts on the development of CFA-based vaccines for humans against ETEC and provide additional information for future ETEC vaccine trials in Southeast Asia. (+info)
Dynamic mimicry in an Indo-Malayan octopus.
During research dives in Indonesia (Sulawesi and Bali), we filmed a distinctive long-armed octopus, which is new to science. Diving over 24 h periods revealed that the 'mimic octopus' emerges during daylight hours to forage on sand substrates in full view of pelagic fish predators. We observed nine individuals of this species displaying a repertoire of postures and body patterns, several of which are clearly impersonations of venomous animals co-occurring in this habitat. This 'dynamic mimicry' avoids the genetic constraints that may limit the diversity of genetically polymorphic mimics but has the same effect of decreasing the frequency with which predators encounter particular mimics. Additionally, our observations suggest that the octopus makes decisions about the most appropriate form of mimicry to use, allowing it to enhance further the benefits of mimicking toxic models by employing mimicry according to the nature of perceived threats. (+info)