Poor micronutrient status of active pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Indonesia.
Malnutrition is observed frequently in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), but their nutritional status, especially of micronutrients, is still poorly documented. The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of patients with active TB compared with that of healthy controls in Jakarta, Indonesia. In a case-control study, 41 out-patients aged 15-55 y with untreated active pulmonary TB were compared with 41 healthy controls selected from neighbors of the patients and matched for age and sex. Cases had clinical and radiographic abnormalities consistent with pulmonary TB and at least two sputum specimens showing acid-fast bacilli. Anthropometric and micronutrient status data were collected. Compared with the controls, TB patients had significantly lower body mass index, skinfold thicknesses (triceps, biceps, subscapular, suprailiac), mid-upper arm circumference, proportion of fat, and concentrations of serum albumin, blood hemoglobin, plasma retinol and plasma zinc, whereas plasma zinc protoporphyrin concentration, as a measure of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration, was greater. When patients and controls were subdivided on the basis of nutritional status, concentrations of serum albumin, blood hemoglobin, and zinc and retinol in plasma were lower in malnourished TB patients than in well-nourished healthy controls, well-nourished TB patients and malnourished healthy controls. In conclusion, the nutritional status of patients with active pulmonary TB was poor compared with healthy subjects, i.e., significantly more patients were anemic and more had low plasma concentrations of retinol and zinc. Low concentrations of hemoglobin, and of retinol and zinc in plasma were more pronounced in malnourished TB patients. (+info)
In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Jakarta, Indonesia.
Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined for 122 Neisseria gonorrheae isolates obtained from 400 sex workers in Jakarta, Indonesia, and susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, and spectinomycin were found. All isolates were resistant to tetracycline. A number of the isolates demonstrated decreased susceptibilities to erythromycin (MIC >/= 1.0 microg/ml), thiamphenicol (MIC >/= 1.0 microg/ml), kanamycin (MIC >/= 16.0 microg/ml), penicillin (MIC >/= 2.0 microg/ml), gentamicin (MIC >/= 16.0 microg/ml), and norfloxacin (MIC = 0.5 microg/ml). These data showed that certain antibiotics previously used in the treatment of gonorrhea are no longer effective. (+info)
The Bali STD/AIDS study: association between vaginal hygiene practices and STDs among sex workers.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between genital cleansing practices and the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and of sexual health knowledge among female sex workers in Bali, Indonesia. METHODS: Low priced commercial sex workers (CSWs) participated in the Bali STD/AIDS Study, a 3 year educational project evaluating the effect of education on the subsequent use of condoms and the prevalence of STDs and AIDS. Structured interviews, genital evaluation, laboratory evaluation for STDs, and treatment were performed. Vaginal cleansing characteristics including frequency, type, and reasons for use, were evaluated. Associations between these characteristics and the presence of bacterial and viral genital infections were assessed. RESULTS: Of 625 female sex workers evaluated between May and July 1998, 99.1% used substances, such as soap and toothpaste, to clean the vagina at least daily, with 69.3% performing this after each intercourse. The women using such cleansers after each client did not differ from those using them once or less daily in education, AIDS and condom use knowledge, time working as a CSW, or number of clients in the previous day. However, they were younger than those using vaginal cleansers daily or less, and reported lower condom usage in the past week. Several genital symptoms, such as discoloured discharge and odour, were reported less by women with the highest frequency of vaginal cleanser use. Prevalence of genital infections in this population of women was substantial, with bacterial infections more prevalent than viral infections. Infections were not associated with the type of cleanser used, using a genital cleanser on the day of examination, or using a cleanser after each client versus daily or less, except for candida colonisation, which was more prevalent in women cleansing after each client (OR=1.87, 95% CI 1.21, 2.90). However, symptomatic candida vulvovaginitis (positive culture plus presence of symptoms) was not associated with the prevalence of genital cleansing. Women using genital cleansing in part for "infection avoidance" (39.7%) were more likely to have heard of STDs and AIDS, but were less knowledgeable about these infections, compared with women not citing this reason for genital cleansing. CONCLUSION: Commercial sex workers in low priced brothels in Bali have a high rate of genital infections, with lower rates of viral compared with bacterial infections. Genital cleansers, on a daily or after each intercourse schedule, are used routinely. Although genital cleansing after each intercourse was associated with fewer genital symptoms, the prevalence of STDs did not differ significantly based on this frequency, and the women's knowledge of STDs and AIDS was less than that of women cleansing less often. The effect of genital cleansing in general on STD and AIDS prevalence could not be assessed in this population owing to the lack of a non-cleansing cohort. Further study to elucidate the effect of vaginal cleansing practices on STD prevalence and resistance is needed. (+info)
Variability in nutrient intakes among pregnant women in Indonesia: implications for the design of epidemiological studies using the 24-h recall method.
Few studies have assessed the reliability of dietary intake methods during pregnancy. Between 1996 and 1998, a longitudinal study of dietary intake during pregnancy was carried out among 451 women in Central Java, Indonesia. Six 24-h recalls were performed each trimester. We report here on intraindividual and interindividual variability in energy and nutrient intakes, as well as the reliability of the 24-h diet recall method. Implications of the use of different numbers of replicate days for estimating dietary intake and the relationships between dietary intake and health outcomes are also discussed. Intravariance-to-intervariance ratios were <1 for energy and carbohydrates and >1 for all other nutrients throughout pregnancy. Reliability analyses found good agreement (reliability coefficient >0.7) with three replicates for the macronutrients, but at least six replicates were needed for an agreement of > or =0.6 for the micronutrients. To estimate true individual average intake with a precision of +/-20%, six replicate recalls were sufficient for energy, carbohydrates, vitamin A, iron and vitamin C. In conclusion, mean intake of several nutrients can be reliably measured with the 24-h recall method, using a limited number of days. The nutrient of interest, the primary objectives and method of analyses should all be taken into account when planning sample size and number of replicates. (+info)
Foot-and-mouth disease type O viruses exhibit genetically and geographically distinct evolutionary lineages (topotypes).
Serotype O is the most prevalent of the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus and occurs in many parts of the world. The UPGMA method was used to construct a phylogenetic tree based on nucleotide sequences at the 3' end of the VP1 gene from 105 FMD type O viruses obtained from samples submitted to the OIE/FAO World Reference Laboratory for FMD. This analysis identified eight major genotypes when a value of 15% nucleotide difference was used as a cut-off. The validity of these groupings was tested on the complete VP1 gene sequences of 23 of these viruses by bootstrap resampling and construction of a neighbour-joining tree. These eight genetic lineages fell within geographical boundaries and we have used the term topotype to describe them. Using a large sequence database, the distribution of viruses belonging to each of the eight topotypes has been determined. These phylogenetically based epidemiological studies have also been used to identify viruses that have transgressed their normal ecological niches. Despite the high rate of mutation during replication of the FMD virus genome, the topotypes appear to represent evolutionary cul-de-sacs. (+info)
Modern human ancestry at the peripheries: a test of the replacement theory.
The replacement theory of modern human origins stipulates that populations outside of Africa were replaced by a new African species of modern humans. Here we test the replacement theory in two peripheral areas far from Africa by examining the ancestry of early modern Australians and Central Europeans. Analysis of pairwise differences was used to determine if dual ancestry in local archaic populations and earlier modern populations from the Levant and/or Africa could be rejected. The data imply that both have a dual ancestry. The diversity of recent humans cannot result exclusively from a single Late Pleistocene dispersal. (+info)
Haemoglobin Lepore Boston and elliptocytosis in a family of Indonesian-German ancestry.
A family is presented in which Hb Lepore Boston was found in six individuals over three generations. The gene must have had its origin either in Java (Indonesia) or in what is now the Federal Republic of Germany. The haemoglobin was characterized by amino-acid analysis of the six tryptic peptides that have a different composition in the beta- and the delta-chain. The ratio of glycine to alanine in position 136 of the fetal haemoglobin, which was somewhat raised in the Hb Lepore carriers, averaged 31:39. In addition an elliptocytosis gene was found, which was inherited independently from Hb Lepore; the simultaneous presence of elliptocytosis in three family members did not seem to aggravate the mild anaemia caused by Hb Lepore. (+info)
Adaptation of a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium vivax from Indonesia to New World monkeys.
The spread of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax from Papua New Guinea and Indonesia poses a serious health threat to areas of Southeast Asia where this species of malaria parasite is endemic. A strain of P. vivax from Indonesia was adapted to develop in splenectomized Aotus lemurinus griseimembra, Aotus vociferans, Aotus nancymai, and Saimiri boliviensis monkeys. Transmission to splenectomized Saimiri monkeys was obtained via sporozoites. Chemotherapeutic studies indicated that the strain was resistant to chloroquine and amodiaquine while sensitive to mefloquine. Infections of chloroquine-resistant P.vivax in New World monkeys should be useful for the development of alternative treatments. (+info)