Short report: possible Cryptosporidium muris infection in humans.
Oocysts of cryptosporidia whose morphology resembled that of Cryptosporidium muris were found in the stool of 2 healthy girls in Surabaya, Indonesia. The oocysts were predominantly oval and measured 7.75+/-0.17 x 5.55+/-0.13 microm (mean+/-SD). The number of oocysts excreted were more than 10(5) per gram of stool. The oocysts were well stained with fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody to Cryptosporidium. The specimens from both girls containing the oocysts showed a positive result by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for the genus Cryptosporidium, but a negative result by the PCR using primers specific for C. parvum. The 2 girls passed oocysts for 5 and 6 days, respectively. They did not complain of any symptoms during the passage of oocysts. (+info)
Genotypic analysis of hepatitis C virus in blood donors in Indonesia.
A study was conducted to describe the genetic diversity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a population of positive blood donors from throughout Indonesia. Repeat analysis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of 102 anti-HCV positive samples showed that 67 gave HCV-specific positive signals by the PCR for the 5'-untranslated genomic region of HCV. Further genotypic analysis on 64 HCV RNA-positive samples indicated that 57 belonged to the following individual genotypes: 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, and 3b. The predominant HCV genotypes in this donor population were 1b (57.8%), 2a (17.2%), and 3b (10.9%). The core sequences of the 4 indeterminate samples when aligned with published sequences of various HCV genotypes showed a range of homology from 16.16% to 78.67%. Comparative analysis of genotypic representation from other anti-HCV-positive study populations, including polytransfused pediatric and adult renal dialysis groups, is now being carried out to determine the potential genotypic association with mechanistic HCV spread. (+info)
Detection of DNA of nocturnally periodic Brugia malayi in night and day blood samples by a polymerase chain reaction-ELISA-based method using an internal control DNA.
An internal control was used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ELISA-based technique to detect the Hha I repeat of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi. A single microfilaria added to 200 microl of blood was reliably detected. The assay was evaluated on field samples from persons living in an area endemic for Anopheles-transmitted, nocturnally periodic B. malayi in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Examination of night blood of 138 individuals for the presence of microfilariae by filtration revealed 44 microfilaria carriers. All microfilaria carriers were also positive in the PCR-ELISA and, in addition, 14 more samples were proven to contain parasite DNA. The sensitivity of both methods was compared on night and on day blood samples collected from 113 persons. Whereas 37 microfilaria carriers were identified by filtration of night blood, no microfilariae were observed in the corresponding day blood samples. The PCR-ELISA result was positive in all 37 night blood samples of microfilaria carriers and in an additional 13 night blood samples without microfilariae. Parasite DNA was detected in 31 day blood samples of microfilaria carriers and in 3 day blood samples of amicrofilaremic persons. Assuming a sensitivity of the PCR-ELISA on night blood of 100%, the sensitivity of night blood filtration is 74% and that of the PCR-ELISA on day blood is 68%. These data suggest that the described PCR-ELISA method is capable of detecting infections with nocturnally periodic B. malayi in day blood samples. Therefore, this method may facilitate both the identification of endemic areas and the monitoring of control programs. (+info)
HLA-DR-promiscuous T cell epitopes from Plasmodium falciparum pre-erythrocytic-stage antigens restricted by multiple HLA class II alleles.
Previously, we identified and established the antigenicity of 17 CD8+ T cell epitopes from five P. falciparum Ags that are restricted by multiple common HLA class I alleles. Here, we report the identification of 11 peptides from the same Ags, cicumsporozoite protein, sporozoite surface protein 2, exported protein-1, and liver-stage Ag-1, that bind between at least five and up to 11 different HLA-DR molecules representative of the most common HLA-DR Ags worldwide. These peptides recall lymphoproliferative and cytokine responses in immune individuals experimentally immunized with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (irradiated sporozoites) or semi-immune individuals naturally exposed to malaria in Irian Jaya or Kenya. We establish that all peptides are recognized by individuals of each of the three populations, and that the frequency and magnitude of helper T lymphocyte responses to each peptide is influenced by the intensity of exposure to P. falciparum sporozoites. Mean frequencies of lymphoproliferative responses are 53.2% (irradiated sporozoites) vs 22.4% (Kenyan) vs 5.8% (Javanese), and mean frequencies of IFN-gamma responses are 66.3% (irradiated sporozoites) vs 27.3% (Kenyan) vs 8. 7% (Javanese). The identification of HLA class II degenerate T cell epitopes from P. falciparum validates our predictive strategy in a biologically relevant system and supports the potential for developing a broadly efficacious epitope-based vaccine against malaria focused on a limited number of peptide specificities. (+info)
Large-scale use of freeze-dried smallpox vaccine prepared in primary cultures of rabbit kidney cells.
A lyophilized smallpox vaccine made from infected monolayer cultures of primary rabbit kidney cells was used together with a calf lymph vaccine in a field trial in Lombok, Indonesia, in 1973. About 60 000 children below 15 years of age were vaccinated: some 50 000 with the tissue culture vaccine and about 10 000 with calf lymph vaccine. Similar results were obtained with both vaccines in primary vaccinees and in revaccinees as regards the take rate, pock reactions, and serious secondary reactions. (+info)
Strong association of interleukin-6 and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein with severity of adverse reactions after diethylcarbamazine treatment of microfilaremic patients.
To assess the involvement of inflammatory mediators in the development of adverse reactions in filarial patients undergoing treatment, 29 microfilaremic subjects were treated with diethylcarbamazine (DEC). Before and at serial time points after initiation of treatment, plasma levels of inflammatory mediators and DEC were measured, and adverse reactions were recorded. Patients experienced no or mild, moderate, or severe adverse reactions. Increasing pretreatment microfilarial counts were associated with escalating severity of adverse reactions. Plasma concentrations of DEC were not different among patients suffering from varying degrees of illness. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNF-Rs) increased after treatment. IL-6 and LBP, however, showed the strongest association with adverse reactions. Increasing levels of these molecules were closely correlated with the mounting severity of adverse reactions, which raises the possibility that they play an important role in systemic inflammation that arises after DEC treatment of filarial patients. (+info)
The human behavioral and socioeconomic determinants of malaria in Bacan Island, North Maluku, Indonesia.
In eastern Indonesia, malaria control activities mainly depend on residual spraying but the situation is almost unchanged since the past decade. Understanding the socioeconomic and human behavior determinants is needed to implement an effective malaria control in accordance with the local condition and development. Hence we conducted an unmatched case control study. Two hundred samples were recruited from all, 11 villages surrounding the centre in Bacan Island, Maluku. For children aged 0 to 15 years old, the association of socioeconomic determinants: crowding and poor type of houses with malaria remained significant in the multivariate analysis. Meanwhile for persons above 15 years old, younger persons and regular going outside at night remained significant in the multivariate analysis. And for persons above 15 years old, a higher proportion of controls (14%) than cases (4%) slept under mosquito net regularly. The Indonesia Family Program should be promoted. There was a better quality of life in small family. For persons above 15 years old, going outside at night should be discouraged because exposed to mosquito bites. The malaria control strategy use of effective personal, regular use of mosquito net could be used as a completion for the present activities. Considering the low malaria knowledge among samples, inhabitants should be enhanced the malaria knowledge on causation, transmission, prevention and to provide proper knowledge on residual spraying. (+info)
Melanesian origin of Polynesian Y chromosomes.
BACKGROUND: Two competing hypotheses for the origins of Polynesians are the 'express-train' model, which supposes a recent and rapid expansion of Polynesian ancestors from Asia/Taiwan via coastal and island Melanesia, and the 'entangled-bank' model, which supposes a long history of cultural and genetic interactions among Southeast Asians, Melanesians and Polynesians. Most genetic data, especially analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation, support the express-train model, as does linguistic and archaeological evidence. Here, we used Y-chromosome polymorphisms to investigate the origins of Polynesians. RESULTS: We analysed eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the Y chromosome in 28 Cook Islanders from Polynesia and 583 males from 17 Melanesian, Asian and Australian populations. We found that all Polynesians belong to just three Y-chromosome haplotypes, as defined by unique event polymorphisms. The major Y haplotype in Polynesians (82% frequency) was restricted to Melanesia and eastern Indonesia and most probably arose in Melanesia. Coalescence analysis of associated Y-STR haplotypes showed evidence of a population expansion in Polynesians, beginning about 2,200 years ago. The other two Polynesian Y haplotypes were widespread in Asia but were also found in Melanesia. CONCLUSIONS: All Polynesian Y chromosomes can be traced back to Melanesia, although some of these Y-chromosome types originated in Asia. Together with other genetic and cultural evidence, we propose a new model of Polynesian origins that we call the 'slow-boat' model: Polynesian ancestors did originate from Asia/Taiwan but did not move rapidly through Melanesia; rather, they interacted with and mixed extensively with Melanesians, leaving behind their genes and incorporating many Melanesian genes before colonising the Pacific. (+info)