BACKGROUND: Mooren's ulcer is a progressive intractable destructive peripheral ulceration of the cornea, probably of autoimmune aetiology. The disease is rare in the northern hemisphere but is more common in southern and central Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Although rare, its predominance in certain racial groups and their second generation migrants worldwide indicates a genetic as well as a geographic predisposition. The highly polymorphic human leucocyte antigens (HLA) confer genetic susceptibility to several autoimmune disorders. Therefore, a possible link between Mooren's ulcer and HLA type was investigated. METHODS: Patients (n=22) with non-infective destructive peripheral corneal inflammatory disease were recruited worldwide. Differential diagnosis confirmed Mooren's ulceration in 12 cases. HLA typing (HLA-A, B, C, DRB, DQB) was performed by serology and PCR using sequence specific primers. The patients came from varied ethnic backgrounds and their HLA typing results were compared with published data from ethnically matched control populations. RESULTS: Of the 12 patients with Mooren's ulcer, 10 (83%) were HLA-DR17(3) positive (including all nine patients of Asian, Indonesian, and black African origin), and 10 (83%) were HLA-DQ2 positive. The frequency of HLA-DR17(3) and DQ2 was higher in the Mooren's ulcer group compared to published data from ethnically matched control populations, where the expected antigen frequencies range between 5% and 40%. CONCLUSION: These results suggest a possible association between HLA-DR17(3) and/or DQ2 and susceptibility to Mooren's ulcer. (+info)
Vitamin A supplementation selectively improves the linear growth of indonesian preschool children: results from a randomized controlled trial.
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency is associated with stunting and wasting in preschool children, but vitamin A supplementation trials have not shown a consistent effect on growth. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of vitamin A supplementation on height and weight increments among Indonesian preschool children. DESIGN: Data were obtained from a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial of rural Javanese children aged 6-48 mo. Children received 206000 IU vitamin A (103000 IU if aged <12 mo) or placebo every 4 mo. RESULTS: High-dose vitamin A supplementation modestly improved the linear growth of the children by 0.16 cm/4 mo. The effect was modified by age, initial vitamin A status, and breast-feeding status. Vitamin A supplementation improved height by 0.10 cm/4 mo in children aged <24 mo and by 0.22 cm/4 mo in children aged >/=24 mo. The vitamin A-supplemented children with an initial serum retinol concentration <0.35 micromol/L gained 0.39 cm/4 mo more in height and 152 g/4 mo more in weight than did the placebo group. No growth response to vitamin A was found among children with an initial serum retinol concentration >/=0.35 micromol/L. In non-breast-fed children, vitamin A supplementation improved height by 0.21 cm/4 mo regardless of age. In breast-fed children, vitamin A supplementation improved linear growth by approximately 0.21 cm/4 mo among children aged >/=24 mo, but had no significant effect on the growth of children aged <24 mo. CONCLUSION: High-dose vitamin A supplementation improves the linear growth of children with very low serum retinol and the effect is modified by age and breast-feeding. (+info)
Prevalence of GB virus C/Hepatitis G virus infection among various populations in Surabaya, Indonesia, and identification of novel groups of sequence variants.
A molecular epidemiological study was performed to investigate the prevalence of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) infection among various populations in Surabaya, Indonesia. The prevalence of GBV-C/HGV RNA, determined by reverse transcription-PCR for a portion of the NS3 region of the viral genome, was 2.7% (4 of 150) among randomly collected blood donor sera, which were all negative for both hepatitis B virus surface antigen and antibodies against hepatitis C virus (HCV). On the other hand, the prevalence among anti-HCV-positive blood donors was 17.8% (13 of 73), with the ratio being significantly higher than that observed with the anti-HCV-negative blood donors (P < 0.001). A high prevalence of GBV-C/HGV infection was also observed among patients with chronic liver disease, such as chronic hepatitis (5.7%), liver cirrhosis (11. 5%), and hepatocellular carcinoma (7.0%), and patients on maintenance hemodialysis (29.0%). No correlation was observed between GBV-C/HGV viremia and serum alanine aminotransferase levels in the populations tested, suggesting the possibility that GBV-C/HGV does not cause apparent liver injury. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences of a portion of the 5' untranslated region and the E1 region of the viral genome identified, in addition to a previously reported then novel group of GBV-C/HGV variants (group 4), another novel group of variants (group 5). This result suggests that GBV-C/HGV can be classified into at least five genetic groups. GBV-C/HGV isolates of group 4 and group 5 were each shown to comprise approximately 40% of the total Indonesian isolates. (+info)
Vitamin B-6 inadequacy is prevalent in rural and urban Indonesian children.
The vitamin B-6 status of Indonesian children was evaluated by determining their dietary vitamin B-6 intakes, erythrocyte alanine aminotransferase activity coefficients and plasma pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) concentrations. Thirty-eight third-grade elementary school children (ages = 8-9 y) in rural and 39 in urban areas of Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, voluntarily served as subjects. The subjects included 39 male and 38 female students. The mean vitamin B-6 intake of the subjects was 0.57 mg/d. Fifty-five percentage of the children reported consuming <0.5 mg/d of vitamin B-6 (the 1998 Estimated Average Requirement for those 4-8 y). Erythrocyte alanine aminotransferase activity coefficients >/= 1.25 were observed in 30%, and plasma PLP concentrations +info)
Reaching young Indonesian women through marriage registries: an innovative approach for anemia control.
In an effort to build iron stores before pregnancy and reduce the high prevalence of anemia in Indonesia, the Ministry of Health/Indonesia and the MotherCare project implemented an anemia control program for newly wed women. As part of an existing program to counsel couples about marriage and require them to obtain tetanus toxoid immunization before obtaining a marriage certificate, women also were counseled to buy and take 30-60 iron-folate (IFA) tablets. Women (n = 344) were enrolled from one of three participating districts in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. At first monitoring, at least 30 d after baseline, 261 women were tested for hemoglobin and asked about their IFA tablet consumption and knowledge of information, education, and communications (IEC) materials promoted through the program. Results showed that there was a decrease in the prevalence of anemia from 23.8 to 14.0% over the course of the program, 98% of women had taken at least some IFA tablets and 56% had taken >30 tablets. (+info)
The occurrence of Trypanosoma evansi in buffaloes in Indonesia, estimated using various diagnostic tests.
The prevalence and incidence of Trypanosoma evansi infections in village buffaloes in Central Java were estimated using parasitological tests, two antigen-detection ELISAs (2G6 Ag-ELISA and Tr7 Ag-ELISA), an antibody-detection ELISA (IgG ELISA) and a card agglutination test (CATT). Of 2387 village buffaloes tested in five districts, 4 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 3 %, 5 %) were positive with the microhaematocrit test (MHCT), 58 % (95 % CI: 56 %, 60 %) were positive with the 2G6 Ag-ELISA and 70 % (95 % CI: 68 %, 72 %) were positive with the Tr7 Ag-ELISA. An increasing prevalence with age was found and the proportion of positive buffaloes was highest in the over 84 months-old age-group (68 %) with the 2G6 Ag-ELISA and in the 37-60 months-old age-group (78 %) with the Tr7 Ag-ELISA. Parasitaemic buffaloes were found in more than half of the villages visited. Corrected village-specific prevalence values obtained with the two Ag-ELISAs ranged from 0% to over 100%, and prevalence differed significantly (P < or = 0.0001) between villages in four of the five districts. Overall, 10% of buffaloes tested in markets were found to be parasitaemic and 39, 56 and 47 % were found positive with the 2G6 Ag-ELISA, IgG ELISA and CATT, respectively. Incidence rates varied according to the test used and ranged from 0.22 (95 % CI: 0.09, 0.44) to 0.44 (95 % CI: 0.24, 0.76), per animal-year at risk, in two villages. The results highlight the importance of using validated diagnostic tests to obtain accurate estimates of prevalence and incidence. These parameters are needed, for example in mathematical models, for the development and evaluation of different control strategies for T. evansi infections in buffaloes. (+info)
The administration to Indonesians of monosodium L-glutamate in Indonesian foods: an assessment of adverse reactions in a randomized double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study.
Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) has been suggested to cause postprandial symptoms after the ingestion of Chinese or oriental meals. Therefore, we examined whether such symptoms could be elicited in Indonesians ingesting levels of MSG typically found in Indonesian cuisine. Healthy volunteers (n = 52) were treated with capsules of placebo or MSG (1.5 and 3.0 g/person) as part of a standardized Indonesian breakfast. The study used a rigorous, randomized, double-blind, crossover design. The occurrence of symptoms after MSG ingestion did not differ from that after consumption of the placebo. (+info)
Fat intake and breast cancer risk in an area where fat intake is low: a case-control study in Indonesia.
BACKGROUND: Associations of fat and other macronutrients with breast cancer risk are not clear in areas where fat intake is low. METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based case-control study from 1992 to 1995 in Jakarta, Indonesia. RESULTS: The study, based on 226 cases and 452 age and socioeconomic status matched controls, provided the following findings. (a) In the pre-marriage period, the greater the fat or protein consumption, the larger the risk, whereas decreasing risk with increasing carbohydrate intake was detected. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest quartile of intake relative to the lowest was 8.47 (95% CI: 4.03-17.8) for fat, 2.19 (95% CI: 1.30-3.69) for protein, and 0.16 (95% CI: 0.08-0.31) for carbohydrate. A positive association with fat and a negative one with carbohydrate were also observed for the post-marriage period, but of weaker magnitude compared to the pre-marriage period. (b) The effects of macronutrient intakes were stronger among premenopausal than among postmenopausal women. (c) Most of the associations of protein and carbohydrate were insignificant after adjustment for fat intake. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that fat intake might be an important determinant of breast cancer among populations with a low fat diet in Indonesia. (+info)