Adhesion of adhesive resin to dental precious metal alloys. Part I. New precious metal alloys with base metals for resin bonding.
New dental precious metal alloys for resin bonding without alloy surface modification were developed by adding base metals (In, Zn, or Sn). Before this, binary alloys of Au, Ag, Cu, or Pd containing In, Zn, or Sn were studied for water durability and bonding strength with 4-META resin. The adhesion ability of the binary alloys was improved by adding In equivalent to 15% of Au content, Zn equivalent to 20% of Ag content, and In, Zn, or Sn equivalent to 5% of Cu content. There was no addition effect of the base metals on Pd, however 15% of In addition improved adhesion with Pd-based alloys containing equi-atomic % of Cu and Pd. The alloy surfaces were analyzed by XPS and showed that oxides such as In2O3, ZnO, or SnO play an important role in improving the adhesive ability of the alloys. (+info
Adhesion of adhesive resin to dental precious metal alloys. Part II. The relationship between surface structure of Au-In alloys and adhesive ability with 4-META resin.
Adhesion of 4-META to Au-In alloy was improved by adding In equivalent to .15% of Au content. On the basis of the results of Au-In alloys analyzed by XPS, the present study investigated the reason why adhesion of the Au-In alloy was improved. The O 1s spectrum could be separated into three oxygen chemical states, In2O3, chemisorbed H2O, and physisorbed H2O. The amount of chemisorbed H2O decreased remarkably with increasing amount of In. It is considered that the poor adhesive ability of the pure gold and alloys containing only small amounts of In was due to the chemisorbed H2O molecules and insufficient indium oxide on the alloy surface. It was established that excellent adhesion requires an oxide with chemical affinity for 4-META to cover at least 50% of the alloy surface. (+info
Gold alloys for resin bonding including small amount base metals--structural changes of alloy surface by the high-temperature oxidation.
To achieve durable bonding with adhesive resin, the surface roughness and the kinds of oxides, respectively to increase mechanical retention to enhance the chemical affinity of adhesive monomer with the gold alloy, were regulated by high-temperature oxidation together with the addition of small amounts of base metals. Alloys containing 2 mass% of Ni, In, or Cr with Cu were oxidized at 800 degrees C for 20 min in air, pickled in thioglycolic acid, and subsequently oxidized at 500 degrees C for 10 min in air. The morphology of the internal oxidation zone changed markedly according to the added base metals. Although the internal oxide particle composed of only Cu2O was removed by pickling, NiO, In2O3, and chromium oxides could not removed and remained on the alloy surface. The surface roughness was increased by addition of Ni, In, or Cr. Applying the present method can control the roughness and chemical states on a gold alloy surface to increase its adhesive ability with adhesive resins. (+info
Neutron generator (HIRRAC) and dosimetry study.
Dosimetry studies have been made for neutrons from a neutron generator at Hiroshima University (HIRRAC) which is designed for radiobiological research. Neutrons in an energy range from 0.07 to 2.7 MeV are available for biological irradiations. The produced neutron energies were measured and evaluated by a 3He-gas proportional counter. Energy spread was made certain to be small enough for radiobiological studies. Dose evaluations were performed by two different methods, namely use of tissue equivalent paired ionization chambers and activation of method with indium foils. Moreover, energy deposition spectra in small targets of tissue equivalent materials, so-called lineal energy spectrum, were also measured and are discussed. Specifications for biological irradiation are presented in terms of monoenergetic beam conditions, dose rates and deposited energy spectra. (+info
Transverse-section radionuclide scanning in cisternography.
By applying the technique of transverse-section radionuclide scanning to cisternography, the structure and relationships of the basal cisterns and other subarachnoid spaces of the brain can be visualized more clearly and with more detail than is possible with routine imaging techniques. The ability of this method to separate overlapping areas of radioactivity ensures improved definition of space-occupying processes within the basal cisterns. In the evaluation by cisternography of patients with hydrocephalus and dementia, the transverse-section images clearly separated various normal and abnormal patterns, whereas the routine cisternogram images were equivocal. (+info
A comparison of 111In with 52Fe and 99mTc-sulfur colloid for bone marrow scanning.
Under most circumstances 52Fe, 111In, and colloid show a similar distribution of marrow. The lesser uptake of 111In by liver and spleen may occasionally be of value in permitting visualization of that portion of the spinal marrow obscured by these organs in the colloid scan. However, in red cell aplasia, when there is dissociation between phagocytic and erythropoietic functions, scanning with 111In gives no information about erythropoietic tissue distribution. Therefore, indium cannot be used as an analog for iron in the study of the hematopoietic system. (+info
Evaluation of portable radionuclide method for measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction and cardiac output.
Seventeen patients with coronary artery, valvular, or myopathic heart disease were studied to determine correlations of the cardiac output and ejection fraction when comparing the results obtained with a portable probe technique using 113mIn with those obtained with standard methods (cineangiographic, Fick, and dye dilution). With ejection fractions ranging from o.10 to 0.85, the coefficient of correlation was 0.90 when comparing cineangiographic and radionuclide techniques. Cardiac output determinations by the radionuclide technique also correlated well with standard methods (r equals 0.88). The radionuclide method shows promise as an accurate, safe, and simple method in the evaluation of cardiac function at the bedside. (+info
Progressive nuclear translocation of somatostatin analogs.
Optimal cancer radiotherapy using Auger electron emitters requires selective localization of radionuclides in close proximity to tumor DNA. METHODS: Intracellular trafficking of (125)I-Tyr1-somatostatin-14 somatotropin-release inhibiting factor (SRIF) and 2 of its analogs, (125)I-WOC 4a and (111)In-pentetreotide, was studied in human neuroblastoma cells. RESULTS: After 24-h incubation, SRIF was degraded or recycled, whereas its protease-resistant analogs progressively accumulated in nuclear fractions. (111)In-pentetreotide binding to DNA increased over time in somatostatin receptor-positive cells but not in somatostatin receptor-negative cells. CONCLUSION: These in vitro studies show that prolonged exposure to radiolabeled SRIF analogs significantly increases their cellular internalization, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding. Clinically, infusion of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs may enhance tumor uptake and retention and provide more effective in situ radiotherapy. (+info