Specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for quantitation of antibody-cytokine fusion proteins.
Preliminary testing has shown in vitro and in vivo that antitumor activity can be obtained with fusion proteins linking tumor-reactive monoclonal antibodies to cytokines, such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or interleukin 2 (IL-2). Preclinical and clinical testing of these reagents requires their in vitro and in vivo quantitation and pharmacokinetic evaluation. We have focused on the detection of a fusion protein which links one human IL-2 molecule to the carboxy terminus of each heavy chain of the tumor-reactive human-mouse chimeric anti-GD2 antibody, ch14.18. We have developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to evaluate intact tumor-reactive fusion proteins. By these ELISAs we can reliably measure nanogram quantities of intact ch14.18-IL-2 fusion protein and distinguish the intact protein from its components (ch14.18 and IL-2) in buffer, mouse serum, and human serum with specificity and reproducibility. The measurement of intact ch14.18-IL-2 fusion protein is not confounded by free IL-2 or free ch14.18 when 100 ng or less of total immunoglobulin per ml is used during the assay procedure. Our results indicate that these ELISAs are suitable for preclinical and clinical testing and with slight modifications are applicable to the analysis of a variety of other fusion proteins. (+info)
Pulmonary capillary endothelium-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in humans.
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary endothelium has metabolic functions including the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II by angiotensin-converting ectoenzyme (ACE). In this study, we have validated an indicator-dilution technique that provides estimations of dynamically perfused capillary surface area (DPCSA) in humans, and we have characterized pulmonary endothelial ACE in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 12 adults, single-pass transpulmonary (one or both lungs) hydrolysis of the specific ACE substrate 3H-benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Pro (3H-BPAP) was measured and expressed as % metabolism (%M) and v=-ln(1-M). We also calculated Amax/Km, an index of DPCSA. %M (70.1+/-3.2 vs 67.9+/-3.1) and v (1.29+/-0.14 vs 1. 20+/-0.12) were similar in both lungs and the right lung, respectively, whereas Amax/Km//body surface area decreased from 2460+/-193 to 1318+/-115 mL/min per square meter. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary endothelial ACE activity can be assessed in humans at the bedside by means of indicator-dilution techniques. Our data suggest homogeneous pulmonary capillary ACE concentrations and capillary transit times (tc) in both human lungs, and similar tc within the normal range of cardiac index. Amax/Km in the right lung is 54% of total Amax/Km in both lungs, suggesting that Amax/Km is a reliable and quantifiable index of DPCSA in humans. (+info)
Body composition in renal transplant patients: bioimpedance analysis compared to isotope dilution, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and anthropometry.
Whether multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA), a relatively new method for measuring body composition, is also applicable for accurate body composition measurements in renal transplant (RTx) patients is not known. Therefore, the use of MF-BIA is validated in 77 RTx patients with a stable renal function at least 2 yr posttransplantation. MF-BIA is compared to isotope dilution techniques for measurement of body water compartments, and to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and anthropometry for measurement of fat and fat free mass. Finally, DEXA and anthropometry are compared to each other. Method agreement is assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and plotted by Bland and Altman analysis. MF-BIA significantly underestimates total body water (TBW, 0.7+/-2.1 L) and overestimates the extracellular water (ECW, 3.3+/-1.8 L) compared to isotope dilution; the ICC between both techniques is 0.943 for TBW and 0.846 for ECW. The percentage body fat (BF) measured by MF-BIA is significantly higher than both BF measured by DEXA (3.4+/-4.7%) or by anthropometry (5.5+/-5.2%). The ICC between MF-BIA and DEXA is 0.887 and between MF-BIA and anthropometry 0.856. BF measured by DEXA is significantly higher than BF measured by anthropometry (2.1+/-4.4%); their ICC is 0.913. In conclusion, MF-BIA seems to be suitable for measurement of TBW in RTx patients; however, method agreement between isotope dilution and MF-BIA for the measurement of ECW is not satisfactory. In the assessment of fat and fat free mass, the reliability of MF-BIA appears to be questionable. Method agreement between DEXA and anthropometry seems to be slightly better. (+info)
The multiple indicator-dilution method for the study of enzyme heterogeneity in liver: theoretical basis.
The theoretical basis of the use of the multiple indicator dilution technique to account for the heterogeneous distribution (or zonation) of enzymes in the liver was explored. The microcirculation was assumed to consist of identical capillaries perfused in parallel, with enzymatic activities for drug metabolism being distributed uniformly over the upstream half (periportal or pp) or the downstream half (perivenous or pv) of the flow path, whereas all other transport/removal processes were assumed to be homogeneously distributed. Outflow dilution profiles for parent drug and metabolite were estimated by inversion of Laplace transforms or by a finite difference method. The areas under the curves for parent and metabolite, the mean transit times of parent (MTT) and metabolite (MTTM, mean time from injection of parent to exit of metabolite from organ), and their relative dispersions (CV2 or CVM2) were estimated from analytical expressions. When the influx-efflux ratio (or cellular-sinusoidal distribution ratio) for metabolite was equal to or smaller than that of the parent, the MTTM ranking was: pp < homogeneous < pv. The ranking was reversed when the influx-efflux ratio for metabolite greatly exceeded that for the parent. The presence of elimination pathways for the metabolite reduced its MTTM and CVM2, more for pp than for homogeneous and pv cases. The theory can be applied to determine enzyme zonation in multiple indicator dilution studies with use of the area under the curve for the metabolite and MTTM during prograde (from portal vein to hepatic vein) and retrograde (from hepatic vein to portal vein) perfusion. (+info)
Detection of changes in lung tissue properties with multiple-indicator dilution.
We evaluated the potential utility of a group of indicators, each of which targets a particular tissue property, as indicators in the multiple-indicator dilution method to detect and to identify abnormalities in lung tissue properties resulting from lung injury models. We measured the pulmonary venous outflow concentration vs. time curves of [14C]diazepam, 3HOH, [14C]phenylethylamine, and a vascular reference indicator following their bolus injection into the pulmonary artery of isolated perfused rabbit lungs under different experimental conditions, resulting in changes in the lung tissue composition. The conditions included granulomatous inflammation, induced by the intravenous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and intratracheal fluid instillation, each of which resulted in similar increases in lung wet weight. Each of these conditions resulted in a unique pattern among the concentration vs. time outflow curves of the indicators studied. The patterns were quantified by using mathematical models describing the pulmonary disposition of each of the indicators studied. A unique model parameter vector was obtained for each condition, demonstrating the ability to detect and to identify changes in lung tissue properties by using the appropriate group of indicators in the multiple-indicator dilution method. One change that was particularly interesting was a CFA-induced change in the disposition of diazepam, suggestive of a substantial increase in peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors in the inflamed lungs. (+info)
Measurement of gluconeogenesis and mass isotopomer analysis based on [U-(13)C]glucose.
Two methods of measuring rates of gluconeogenesis based on label redistribution after the introduction of [U-(13)C]glucose into the whole body are examined. These methods are compared with methods previously derived for carbon-14 tracers. It is shown that the three approaches (stoichiometric, dilution, and combinatorial) are equivalent, provided the same set of assumptions are used. Barring a factor of two [see Am. J. Physiol. 270 (Endocrinol. Metab. 33): E709-E717, 1996], the differences ( approximately 10-15%) in the carbon-based dilutional and the molecule-based estimates of the rate of gluconeogenesis from published isotopomer data likely arise from small differences in the assumptions that concern the relative rate of label loss from the different isotopomers. The production of unlabeled substrate for glucose synthesis (phosphoenolpyruvate) from the different isotopomers of lactate is shown to be a potential source of error in these methods. This error is estimated using models of the interaction of the gluconeogenetic pathway and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and is shown to vary from negligible to 30% depending on the relative flux of the two pathways through the oxaloacetate pool. Because the estimates obtained by both methods considered are lower than is physiologically expected, some of the assumptions made may not hold. Future work will exploit the rich information content of isotopomer data to yield improved estimates. (+info)
The effects of ouabain and potassium on peritoneal fluid and solute transport characteristics.
BACKGROUND: We reported anomalous transport characteristics of potassium during experimental peritoneal dialysis in rats and suggested that mechanisms of peritoneal potassium transport could be other than simple passive transport. Intracellular transport of potassium in cultured human mesothelial cells was reported to be regulated by three different pathways, such as channels blocked by ouabain, channels blocked by furosemide, and other. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ouabain on peritoneal potassium and water transport characteristics. METHODS: A single 4-hour peritoneal dwell was performed in 28 Sprague-Dawley rats. To minimize the diffusive transport of potassium, 4.5 mmol/L of KCl was added into conventional dialysis solution with 3.86% glucose [acidic peritoneal dialysis solution (APD)]. To evaluate the effect of the pH of dialysis solution on the transport of potassium and water, 4 mmol/L of NaOH was added into the potassium-containing study solutions [neutral peritoneal dialysis solution (NPD)]. To evaluate the effect of a potassium channel blocker on peritoneal potassium transport ATPase sensitive Na+-K+-transport inhibitor, ouabain (10(-5) mmol/L) was added to dialysis solutions immediately before the dwell study in eight rats with APD (APD-O) and six rats with NPD (NPD-O). Ouabain was not added in eight and six rats with APD and NPD (APD-C and NPD-C, respectively). They were used as control. Infusion volume was 30 mL. The intraperitoneal volume (V(D)) was estimated by using a volume marker dilution method with corrections for the elimination of volume marker, radioiodinated human serum albumin (RISA), from the peritoneal cavity (K(E)). The diffusive mass transport coefficient (K(BD)) and sieving coefficient (S) were estimated using the modified Babb-Randerson-Farrell model. RESULTS: V(D) was significantly higher (p < 0.05 from 90 min to 240 min) and K(E) (0.027+/-0.018 mL/min for APD-O, 0.026+/-0.017 mL/min for NPD-O, and 0.030+/-0.022 mL/min for NPD-C, vs 0.058+/-0.030 mL/min for APD-C, p < 0.05 for each) significantly lower during dialysis with APD-O, NPD-O, and NPD-C than with APD-C. The intraperitoneal glucose expressed as a percentage of the initial amount was significantly higher with APD-O, NPD-C, and NPD-O than with APD-C (p < 0.05 from 90 min to 240 min). K(BD) for sodium was higher during dialysis with ouabain than without ouabain, while K(BD) for urea, glucose, and potassium, and S for urea, glucose, sodium, and potassium did not differ between the four groups. CONCLUSIONS: The physiologic potassium concentration in neutral dialysis solutions and the use of ouabain decreased the intraperitoneal fluid absorption. The diffusive transport coefficient and sieving coefficient for potassium did not differ, while the diffusive transport coefficient for sodium increased during use of ouabain. (+info)
Kinetics of endothelin-1 binding in the dog liver microcirculation in vivo.
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a 21-amino acid peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells that acts as a potent constrictor of hepatic sinusoids. Hepatic binding of tracer (125)I-labeled ET-1 was investigated in anesthetized dogs with the multiple-indicator dilution technique with simultaneous measurements of unlabeled immunoreactive ET-1 plasma levels. Despite 80% binding to albumin, tracer (125)I-ET-1 was avidly extracted by the liver, with only 15 +/- 6% of the peptide surviving passage through the organ. Exchange of ET-1 between plasma and binding sites, probably located on the surface of liver cells, was quantitatively described by a barrier-limited, space-distributed variable transit time model. Reversible and irreversible parallel binding sites were found. Reversible and irreversible plasma clearances of unbound (125)I-ET-1 were 0.084 +/- 0.033 ml. s(-1). g liver(-1) and 0.17 +/- 0.09 ml. s(-1). g liver(-1), respectively, and the dissociation rate constant for reversible binding was 0.24 +/- 0.12 s(-1). The specific ET(A) receptor antagonist BMS-182874 did not modify binding to either site. The nonspecific ET(A)/ET(B) antagonist LU-224332 dose-dependently reduced irreversible binding only. ET-1 levels in the hepatic vein were significantly lower than in the portal vein but were not different from those in the hepatic artery. The ratio between hepatic vein and portal vein levels (0.64 +/- 0.31) was considerably higher than survival fractions, suggesting a substantial simultaneous release of newly synthesized or stored ET-1 by the liver. These results demonstrate both substantial clearance and production of ET-1 by the intact liver. Hepatic ET-1 clearance is mediated by the ET(B) receptor, with the presence of reversible, nonspecific ET-1 binding at the liver surface (+info)