Intradialytic removal of protein-bound uraemic toxins: role of solute characteristics and of dialyser membrane.
BACKGROUND: The efficiency of dialysis membranes is generally evaluated by assessing their capacity to remove small, water-soluble and non-protein-bound reference markers such as urea or creatinine. However, recent data suggest that protein-bound and/or lipophilic substances might be responsible for biochemical alterations characterizing the uraemic syndrome. METHODS: In the present study, the total concentrations of four uraemic retention compounds (indoxyl sulphate, hippuric acid, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid (CMPF) and p-cresol) and of tryptophan, the only protein-bound amino acid and a precursor of indoxyl sulphate, were compared with those of urea and creatinine in pre- and post-dialysis serum and in dialysate of 10 patients; two high-flux (HF) membranes (cellulose triacetate (CTA) and polysulphone (PS)) and a low-flux polysulphone (LFPS) membrane were compared in a crossover design, using HPLC. RESULTS: Except for hippuric acid (67.3+/-17.5% decrease), major differences were found in the percentage removal of the classical uraemic markers on one hand (creatinine 66.6+/-7.0% and urea 75.5+/-5.8% decrease) and the studied protein-bound and/or lipophilic substances on the other (indoxyl sulphate, 35.4+/-15.3% and p-cresol 29.0+/-14.2% decrease; tryptophan, 27.5+/-40.3%, and CMPF, 22.4+/-17.5% increase; P<0.01 vs urea and creatinine in all cases). Hippuric acid removal was more pronounced than that of the remaining protein-bound compounds (P<0. 01). After correction for haemoconcentration, per cent increase of tryptophan and CMPF was less substantial, while per cent negative changes for the remaining compounds became more important. There was a correlation between creatinine and urea per cent removal at min 240 (r=0.51, P<0.01), but all the other compounds showed no significant correlation with either of these two. The three membranes were similar regarding the changes of total solute concentrations from the start to the end of dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: Urea and creatinine are far more efficiently removed than the other compounds under study, except for hippuric acid. There are no striking differences between the HF membranes. Moreover, compared with the LF membrane these HF membranes do not appear to be superior in removing the studied compounds. (+info)
An oral sorbent reduces overload of indoxyl sulphate and gene expression of TGF-beta1 in uraemic rat kidneys.
BACKGROUND: An oral adsorbent (AST-120) delays the progression of chronic renal failure (CRF). The aims of the present study are to determine the effects of AST-120 on the localization of indoxyl sulphate in uraemic rat kidneys, and to examine whether AST-120 reduces the renal cortical gene expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and pro-alpha1(I)collagen, and ameliorates glomerular and tubulointerstitial injuries in uraemic rats. METHODS: Two weeks after 5/6-nephrectomy, 10 rats were divided into pairs such that both rats in each pair exhibited almost the same levels of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine clearance. One rat from each pair was assigned to a control uraemic group, the other to a uraemic group which received AST-120 everyday for 11 weeks. The localization of indoxyl sulphate was studied by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal anti-indoxyl sulphate antibody we had developed. The renal cortical gene expression was studied by using northern blotting. RESULTS: Rats treated with AST-120 showed decreased levels of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and urinary protein as well as increased levels of creatinine clearance as compared with control uraemic rats. AST-120 markedly decreased indoxyl sulphate levels in both serum and urine. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that indoxyl sulphate was localized in the renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, especially of dilated tubules, and that AST-120 markedly reduced the tubular staining of indoxyl sulphate. AST-120 attenuated interstitial fibrosis, tubular injury as well as glomerular sclerosis, and reduced the renal gene expression of TGF-beta1, TIMP-1 and pro-alpha1(I)collagen. CONCLUSIONS: AST-120 reduces the gene expression of TGF-beta1, TIMP-1 and pro-alpha1(I)collagen in the kidneys, and delays the progression of CRF, at least in part, by alleviating the overload of indoxyl sulphate on remnant proximal tubular epithelial cells. (+info)
Hepatic microsomal metabolism of indole to indoxyl, a precursor of indoxyl sulfate.
The aim of our study was to determine which microsomal cytochrome P450 isozyme(s) were responsible for the microsomal oxidation of indole to indoxyl, an important intermediate in the information of the uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate. Indole was incubated together with an NADPH-generating system and rat liver microsomes. Formation of indigo, an auto-oxidation product of indoxyl, was used to determine the indole-3-hydroxylation activity. Apparent Km and Vmax values of 0.85 mM and 1152 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) were calculated for the formation of indoxyl from indole using rat liver microsomes. The effects of various potential inducers and inhibitors on the metabolism of indole to indoxyl by rat liver microsomes were studied to elucidate the enzymes responsible for metabolism. Studies with general and isozyme-specific P450 inhibitors demostrated that P450 enzymes and not FMO are responsible for the formation of indoxyl. In the induction studies, rate of indoxyl formation in the microsomes from untreated vs induced rats correlated nearly exactly with the CYP2E1 activity (4-nitrophenol 2-hydroxylation). These results suggests that CYP2E1 is the major isoform for the microsomal oxidation of indole to indoxyl. (+info)
Major role of organic anion transporter 3 in the transport of indoxyl sulfate in the kidney.
BACKGROUND: Indoxyl sulfate is a uremic toxin that accumulates in the body because of the patient's inability to excrete it and it induces a number of uremic symptoms and leads to chronic renal failure. The functional failure of the excretion system for indoxyl sulfate causes its accumulation in blood. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the transport mechanism responsible for the renal excretion of indoxyl sulfate. METHODS: The [3H]indoxyl sulfate transport mechanism was investigated using an in vivo tissue-sampling single-injection technique, the kidney uptake index (KUI) method. Rat organic anion transporter 3 (rOAT3)-expressing Xenopus laevis oocyte system was used for measuring [3H]indoxyl sulfate uptake activity. RESULTS: Probenecid showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the uptake of [3H]indoxyl sulfate using the KUI method, and uptake was inhibited by organic anions such as para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) and benzylpenicillin, by weak base such as cimetidine, and by uremic toxins, such as 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF) and hippuric acid (HA). However, salicylic acid, indomethacin, 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine and indole acetic acid (IA) had no effect on the uptake. rOAT3-expressing oocytes exhibited uptake of [3H]indoxyl sulfate by rOAT3 (Km = 158 micromol/L). Moreover, a number of uremic toxins inhibited the uptake of [3H]indoxyl sulfate by rOAT3. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that rOAT3 is responsible for the renal uptake of indoxyl sulfate, and uremic toxins share the transport mechanism for indoxyl sulfate. Mutual inhibition of these uremic toxins via OAT3 may accelerate their accumulation in the body and, thereby, the progression of nephrotoxicity in uremia. (+info)
Sulfation of indoxyl by human and rat aryl (phenol) sulfotransferases to form indoxyl sulfate.
The aim of this study was to identify sulfotransferase (SULT) isoform(s) responsible for the formation of indoxyl sulfate from indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole). Indoxyl was incubated together with the co-substrate 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) and either human or rat liver cytosol or recombinant sulfotransferase enzymes. Formation of indoxyl sulfate from indoxyl was measured by HPLC and used for determination of sulfonation rates. Both cytosols sulfonated indoxyl with apparent Km values of 6.8 +/- 0.9 microM for human and 3.2 +/- 0.6 microM for rat cytosol. To help identify the isoform(s) of SULT responsible for indoxyl sulfate formation, indoxyl was incubated with human and rat liver cytosols and PAPS in the presence of isoform-specific SULT inhibitors. No inhibition was observed by DHEA, a specific hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase inhibitor, nor by oestrone, an inhibitor of oestrogen sulfotransferase. However, an aryl (phenol) sulfotransferase inhibitor, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol (DCNP), inhibited the formation of indoxyl sulfate with a IC50 values of 3.2 microM for human and 1.0 microM for rat cytosol indicating that human and rat aryl (phenol) sulfotransferases are responsible for the formation of indoxyl sulfate. When indoxyl was incubated with SULT1A1*2, a human recombinant aryl SULT, an apparent Km value of 5.6 +/- 1.8 microM was obtained. Kinetic studies with human and rat cytosols and human recombinant SULT1A1*2 gave similar kinetic values indicating that human and rat aryl sulfotransferases efficiently catalyze the formation of indoxyl sulfate, an important uremic toxin metabolite. (+info)
Role of organic anion transporters in the tubular transport of indoxyl sulfate and the induction of its nephrotoxicity.
In uremic patients, various uremic toxins are accumulated and exert various biologic effects on uremia. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is one of uremic toxins that is derived from dietary protein, and serum levels of IS are markedly increased in both uremic rats and patients. It has been previously reported that the accumulation of IS promotes the progression of chronic renal failure (CRF). This study demonstrates the role of rat organic anion transporters (rOATs) in the transport of IS and the induction of its nephrotoxicity. The administration of IS to 5/6-nephrectomized rats caused a faster progression of CRF, and immunohistochemistry revealed that IS was detected in the proximal and distal tubules where rOAT1 (proximal tubules) and/or rOAT3 (proximal and distal tubules) were also shown to be localized. In in vitro study, the proximal tubular cells derived from mouse that stably express rOAT1 (S2 rOAT1) and rOAT3 (S2 rOAT3) were established. IS inhibited organic anion uptake by S2 rOAT1 and S2 rOAT3, and the Ki values were 34.2 and 74.4 microM, respectively. Compared with mock, S2 rOAT1 and S2 rOAT3 exhibited higher levels of IS uptake, which was inhibited by probenecid and cilastatin, organic anion transport inhibitors. The addition of IS induced a decrease in the viability of S2 rOAT1 and S2 rOAT3 as compared with the mock, which was rescued by probenecid. These results suggest that rOAT1 and rOAT3 play an important role in the transcellular transport of IS and the induction of its nephrotoxicity. (+info)
Diverticular disease: three studies. Part III - Metabolic effect of bran in patients with diverticular disease.
Patients with diverticular disease were given about 24 g bran daily for at least six months. After treatment the oral glucose tolerance curve fell, faecal fat excretion increased, the serum lipoprotein pattern was altered, urinary calcium excretion was reduced, and the serum folate level fell. These changes were not considered to contraindicate the use of bran in the treatment of diverticular disease. (+info)
Counter-regulatory effects of procalcitonin and indoxyl sulphate on net albumin secretion by cultured rat hepatocytes.
BACKGROUND: Although hypoalbuminaemia is a significant predictor of mortality in haemodialysis (HD) patients, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain to be determined. Albumin is a negative acute-phase reactant and many proinflammatory substances are elevated in HD patients. We investigated factors that may affect liver albumin synthesis. METHODS: Hepatocytes were isolated from rat livers and were cultured with interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, procalcitonin (PCT), a sensitive marker of infection, and indoxyl sulphate (IS), a uraemic toxin. Albumin levels in the supernatant were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Albumin mRNA expression was determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: IL-6 and TNF-alpha significantly decreased albumin levels in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). In contrast, IL-4 and IL-12 did not modulate albumin production. PCT and IS significantly and dose-dependently increased albumin levels (both P<0.01). PCT increased albumin mRNA expression in the hepatocytes (P = 0.05) and dose-dependently abrogated IL-6-induced suppression of albumin synthesis (P<0.01). IS also blocked the IL-6-induced decrease in net albumin secretion (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that PCT and IS protect against suppression of hepatic albumin synthesis caused by proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting their potential role in preventing hypoalbuminaemia in HD patients. (+info)