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(1/355) The relationship of family size and spacing to the growth of preschool Mayan children in Guatemala.

The height of preschool Mayan children is analyzed with respect to family size and the spacing of their siblings, controlling for parental heights and weights. Data on 643 cases were abstracted from the records of two previous longitudinal studies on the health of children under age five years living in the highlands of Guatemala. Height at age three years is estimated from the linear regression equations fitted for each child to measurements of height repeated at three-month intervals from ages one to four years. Family size is expressed in terms of birth rank, live siblings, and the number of dependent and independent family members. Family spacing is measured as birth intervals, i.e., the number of months between the birth of the index child and his previous and subsequent siblings. Most previous studies have reported that height decreases as family size increases. This study shows that Mayan children from both small and large families are taller than those from middle-sized families. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that children in large families are relatively tall because their early-born siblings contribute to the family fortunes. Birth intervals are positively correlated with height. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for family planning.  (+info)

(2/355) Microsatellites provide evidence for Y chromosome diversity among the founders of the New World.

Recently, Y chromosome markers have begun to be used to study Native American origins. Available data have been interpreted as indicating that the colonizers of the New World carried a single founder haplotype. However, these early studies have been based on a few, mostly complex polymorphisms of insufficient resolution to determine whether observed diversity stems from admixture or diversity among the colonizers. Because the interpretation of Y chromosomal variation in the New World depends on founding diversity, it is important to develop marker systems with finer resolution. Here we evaluate the hypothesis of a single-founder Y haplotype for Amerinds by using 11 Y-specific markers in five Colombian Amerind populations. Two of these markers (DYS271, DYS287) are reliable indicators of admixture and detected three non-Amerind chromosomes in our sample. Two other markers (DYS199, M19) are single-nucleotide polymorphisms mostly restricted to Native Americans. The relatedness of chromosomes defined by these two markers was evaluated by constructing haplotypes with seven microsatellite loci (DYS388 to 394). The microsatellite backgrounds found on the two haplogroups defined by marker DYS199 demonstrate the existence of at least two Amerind founder haplotypes, one of them (carrying allele DYS199 T) largely restricted to Native Americans. The estimated age and distribution of these haplogroups places them among the founders of the New World.  (+info)

(3/355) Differential perpetuation of malaria species among Amazonian Yanomami Amerindians.

To determine whether malaria perpetuates within isolated Amerindian villages in the Venezuelan Amazon, we surveyed malaria infection and disease among 1,311 Yanomami in three communities during a 16-month period. Plasmodium vivax was generally present in each of these small, isolated villages; asymptomatic infection was frequent, and clinical disease was most evident among children less than five years of age (odds ratio [OR] = 6.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-29.2) and among persons experiencing parasitemias > or = 1,000 parasites/mm3 of blood (OR = 45.0, 95% CI = 5.5-370.7). Plasmodium falciparum, in contrast, was less prevalent, except during an abrupt outbreak in which 72 infections resulted in symptoms in all age groups and at all levels of parasitemia, and occasionally were life-threatening. The observed endemic pattern of P. vivax infection may derive from the capacity of this pathogen to relapse, while the epidemic pattern of P. falciparum infection may reflect occasional introductions of strains carried by immigrants or residents of distant villages and the subsequent disappearance of this non-relapsing pathogen.  (+info)

(4/355) Effect of chemotherapy on malaria transmission among Yanomami Amerindians: simulated consequences of placebo treatment.

To determine whether chemotherapy effectively reduces Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in isolated human populations, we followed two abrupt sequential outbreaks of malaria infection among Yanomami Amerindians and modeled the effect of chemotherapy and the consequences if no drug was available. A Macdonald-type mathematical model demonstrated that both outbreaks comprised a single epidemic event linked by an invisible outbreak in vector mosquitoes. The basic reproductive number, R0, from fitted values based on the treated epidemic was 2 during the initial phase of the epidemic, and waned as vector density decreased with the onset of the dry season. In the observed epidemic, 60 (45%) of 132 village residents were affected, and the treated outbreak ended after two months. Although the initial chemotherapy regimen was only marginally effective, the duration of human infectivity was reduced from an expected nine months to two weeks. In the absence of this intervention, the initial R0 value would have been 40, more than 60% of the population would have been infected, and more than 30% would have remained parasitemic until the next rainy season (about six months later). Another outbreak would then have ensued, and malaria probably would have remained endemic in this village. Our simulated placebo treatment permits us to conclude that even partially effective chemotherapeutic interventions, such as those in our study, interrupt serial transmission of P. falciparum among isolated human populations that are exposed to infection seasonally.  (+info)

(5/355) Prevalence of antibody to human T cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 among aboriginal groups inhabiting northern Argentina and the Amazon region of Peru.

We carried out a seroepidemiologic survey to define the prevalence of human T cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) infections among aboriginal populations from isolated regions of northern Argentina and the Amazon region of Peru. Antibodies against HTLV were measured with agglutination tests and confirmed with by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blotting. Five (6.94%) of 72 samples from the Tobas Indians in Argentina were positive by the IFA; two samples were typed as HTLV-1 (2.78%), two as HTLV-2 (2.78%), and one (1.39%) could not be typed because it had similar antibody titers against both viruses. No positive samples were found among 84 Andinos Punenos and 47 Matacos Wichis Indians. Seroprevalences of 2.50% (1 of 40) and 1.43% (1 of 70) for HTLV-1 were observed among Wayku and San Francisco communities in the Amazon region of Peru, and seroprevalences of 4.54% (1 of 22) and 2.38% (1 of 42) for HTLV-2 were observed among Boca Colorada and Galilea communities. No serologic evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was found among the Indians tested. These results indicated the presence of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in the indigenous populations of Argentina and Peru. Moreover, the lack of HIV infection indicates that the virus has probably not yet been introduced into these populations.  (+info)

(6/355) mtDNA history of the Cayapa Amerinds of Ecuador: detection of additional founding lineages for the Native American populations.

mtDNA variation in the Cayapa, an Ecuadorian Amerindian tribe belonging to the Chibcha-Paezan linguistic branch, was analyzed by use of hypervariable control regions I and II along with two linked regions undergoing insertion/deletion mutations. Three major maternal lineage clusters fit into the A, B, and C founding groups first described by Schurr and colleagues in 1990, whereas a fourth lineage, apparently unique to the Cayapa, has ambiguous affinity to known clusters. The time of divergence from a common maternal ancestor of the four lineage groups is of sufficient age that it indicates an origin in Asia and supports the hypothesis that the degree of variability carried by the Asian ancestral populations into the New World was rather high. Spatial autocorrelation analysis points out (a) statistically significant nonrandom distributions of the founding lineages in the Americas, because of north-south population movements that have occurred since the first Asian migrants spread through Beringia into the Americas, and (b) an unusual pattern associated with the D lineage cluster. The values of haplotype and nucleotide diversity that are displayed by the Cayapa appear to differ from those observed in other Chibchan populations but match those calculated for South American groups belonging to various linguistic stocks. These data, together with the results of phylogenetic analysis performed with the Amerinds of Central and South America, highlight the difficulty in the identification of clear coevolutionary patterns between linguistic and genetic relationships in particular human populations.  (+info)

(7/355) Type 2 diabetes mellitus: association study of five candidate genes in an Indian population of Guadeloupe, genetic contribution of FABP2 polymorphism.

We studied by PCR-RFLP 6 polymorphisms in these 5 candidate genes: Ala54Thr in the fatty acid binding protein 2 gene (FABP2), A to G substitution in the uncoupling protein type 1 gene (UCP1), Asp905Tyr in the protein phosphatase type 1 gene (PP1G), Trp64Arg in the human beta 3 adrenergic receptor gene (beta 3AR) and 2 RFLP sites of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene (VDRTaq1 and VDRApa1). This study was conducted among 89 cases and 100 controls matched according to age, gender and absence of first degree family link (11 triplets with 2 controls for 1 case and 78 pairs with 1 control for 1 case). Cases and controls were taken among a sample of 429 individuals selected for the study of the prevalence of diabetes in this ethnic group from Guadeloupe. By conditional logistic regression analysis, there was a significant relation (p = 0.02) between the Ala54Thr FABP2 polymorphism and Type 2 DM. Multivariate analysis discriminate the FABP2 polymorphism (p = 0.10), a triglyceridemia over 2 g/l (p < 10(-3)) and high blood pressure (p = 10(-2)) as variables associated with Type 2 DM in this population. These findings suggest that FABP2 does not represent a major gene for Type 2 DM in this migrant Indian population living in Guadeloupe, but seems to be related to the metabolic insulin resistance syndrome.  (+info)

(8/355) Genetic characterization of an epidemic of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among Yanomami Amerindians.

Malaria parasites are genetically diverse at all levels of endemicity. In contrast, the merozoite surface protein (MSP) alleles in samples from 2 isolated populations of Yanomami Amerindians during an epidemic of Plasmodium falciparum were identical. The nonvariable restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns further suggested that the sequential outbreak comprised only a single P. falciparum genotype. By examination of serial samples from single human infections, the MSP characteristics were found to remain constant throughout the course of infection. An apparent clonal population structure of parasites seemed to cause outbreaks in small isolated villages. The use of standard molecular epidemiologic methods to measure genetic diversity in malaria revealed the occurrence of a genetically monomorphic population of P. falciparum within a human community.  (+info)