Inbreeding of bottlenecked butterfly populations. Estimation using the likelihood of changes in marker allele frequencies.
Polymorphic enzyme and minisatellite loci were used to estimate the degree of inbreeding in experimentally bottlenecked populations of the butterfly, Bicyclus anynana (Satyridae), three generations after founding events of 2, 6, 20, or 300 individuals, each bottleneck size being replicated at least four times. Heterozygosity fell more than expected, though not significantly so, but this traditional measure of the degree of inbreeding did not make full use of the information from genetic markers. It proved more informative to estimate directly the probability distribution of a measure of inbreeding, sigma2, the variance in the number of descendants left per gene. In all bottlenecked lines, sigma2 was significantly larger than in control lines (300 founders). We demonstrate that this excess inbreeding was brought about both by an increase in the variance of reproductive success of individuals, but also by another process. We argue that in bottlenecked lines linkage disequilibrium generated by the small number of haplotypes passing through the bottleneck resulted in hitchhiking of particular marker alleles with those haplotypes favored by selection. In control lines, linkage disequilibrium was minimal. Our result, indicating more inbreeding than expected from demographic parameters, contrasts with the findings of previous (Drosophila) experiments in which the decline in observed heterozygosity was slower than expected and attributed to associative overdominance. The different outcomes may both be explained as a consequence of linkage disequilibrium under different regimes of inbreeding. The likelihood-based method to estimate inbreeding should be of wide applicability. It was, for example, able to resolve small differences in sigma2 among replicate lines within bottleneck-size treatments, which could be related to the observed variation in reproductive viability. (+info)
Improving the efficiency of artificial selection: more selection pressure with less inbreeding.
The use of population genetic variability in present-day selection schemes can be improved to reduce inbreeding rate and inbreeding depression without impairing genetic progress. We performed an experiment with Drosophila melanogaster to test mate selection, an optimizing method that uses linear programming to maximize the selection differential applied while at the same time respecting a restriction on the increase in inbreeding expected in the next generation. Previous studies about mate selection used computer simulation on simple additive genetic models, and no experiment with a real character in a real population had been carried out. After six selection generations, the optimized lines showed an increase in cumulated phenotypic selection differential of 10.76%, and at the same time, a reduction of 19.91 and 60.47% in inbreeding coefficient mean and variance, respectively. The increased selection pressure would bring greater selection response, and in fact, the observed change in the selected trait was on average 31.03% greater in the optimized lines. These improvements in the selection scheme were not made at the expense of the long-term expectations of genetic variability in the population, as these expectations were very similar for both mate selection and conventionally selected lines in our experiment. (+info)
Microsatellite loci in wild-type and inbred Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a major research model in developmental molecular biology, has been inbred through six generations of sibling matings. Though viability initially decreased, as described earlier, the inbred line now consists of healthy, fertile animals. These are intended to serve as a genomic resource in which the level of polymorphism is decreased with respect to wild S. purpuratus. To genotype the inbred animals eight simple sequence genomic repeats were isolated, in context, and PCR primers were generated against the flanking single-copy sequences. Distribution and polymorphism of these regions of the genome were studied in the genomes of 27 wild individuals and in a sample of the inbred animals at F2 and F3 generations. All eight regions were polymorphic, though to different extents, and their homozygosity was increased by inbreeding as expected. The eight markers suffice to identify unambiguously the cellular DNA of any wild or F3 S. purpuratus individual. (+info)
The changes in genetic and environmental variance with inbreeding in Drosophila melanogaster.
We performed a large-scale experiment on the effects of inbreeding and population bottlenecks on the additive genetic and environmental variance for morphological traits in Drosophila melanogaster. Fifty-two inbred lines were created from the progeny of single pairs, and 90 parent-offspring families on average were measured in each of these lines for six wing size and shape traits, as well as 1945 families from the outbred population from which the lines were derived. The amount of additive genetic variance has been observed to increase after such population bottlenecks in other studies; in contrast here the mean change in additive genetic variance was in very good agreement with classical additive theory, decreasing proportionally to the inbreeding coefficient of the lines. The residual, probably environmental, variance increased on average after inbreeding. Both components of variance were highly variable among inbred lines, with increases and decreases recorded for both. The variance among lines in the residual variance provides some evidence for a genetic basis of developmental stability. Changes in the phenotypic variance of these traits are largely due to changes in the genetic variance. (+info)
Scavenger receptor activity is increased in macrophages from rabbits with low atherosclerotic response: studies in normocholesterolemic high and low atherosclerotic response rabbits.
We have previously described 2 strains of New Zealand White rabbits with a high (HAR) or low (LAR) atherosclerotic response to hypercholesterolemia. In the present study, we focused on class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) activity and ApoE expression in macrophages from both rabbit strains. These parameters play a crucial role in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the arterial wall and may be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. SR activity, as measured by uptake of DiI-labeled acetylated LDL, was significantly higher in macrophages from LAR rabbits (2177+/-253 ng/mg cell protein) than in macrophages from HAR rabbits (1153+/-200 ng/mg cell protein). The higher SR activity was caused by a greater number of SRs (apparent Vmax, 4100 ng/mg in LAR and 1980 ng/mg in HAR rabbits). The high SR activity in macrophages from LAR rabbits was associated with a significantly higher expression of SR-A mRNA compared with macrophages from HAR rabbits. However, the latter finding could not be explained by differences in the activity of transcription factor-activating protein 1 (AP-1), which was comparable in macrophages from both strains of rabbits. Because under certain circumstances SR-A mRNA expression is regulated in parallel with ApoE expression, we also evaluated this parameter. Although ApoE mRNA was 74% higher in macrophages from LAR rabbits, the difference did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, the increased expression of SR-A in macrophages in the presence of adequate amounts of ApoE may play a role in attenuating atherosclerosis in LAR rabbits. (+info)
Paternal kin discrimination in wild baboons.
Mammals commonly avoid mating with maternal kin, probably as a result of selection for inbreeding avoidance. Mating with paternal kin should be selected against for the same reason. However, identifying paternal kin may be more difficult than identifying maternal kin in species where the mother mates with more than one male. Selection should nonetheless favour a mechanism of paternal kin recognition that allows the same level of discrimination among paternal as among maternal kin, but the hypothesis that paternal kin avoid each other as mates is largely untested in large mammals such as primates. Here I report that among wild baboons, Papio cynocephalus, paternal siblings exhibited lower levels of affiliative and sexual behaviour during sexual consortships than non-kin, although paternal siblings were not significantly less likely to consort than non-kin. I also examined age proximity as a possible social cue of paternal relatedness, because age cohorts are likely to be paternal sibships. Pairs born within two years of each other were less likely to engage in sexual consortships than pairs born at greater intervals, and were less affiliative and sexual when they did consort. Age proximity may thus be an important social cue for paternal relatedness, and phenotype matching based on shared paternal traits may play a role as well. (+info)
A new mouse model of spontaneous diabetes derived from ddY strain.
By the selective breeding of obese male mice of the ddY strain and using indices of the heavy body weight and appearance of urinary glucose, we established two inbred strains in 1992: one with obesity and urinary glucose (Tsumura, Suzuki, Obese Diabetes: TSOD) and the other without them (Tsumura, Suzuki, Non Obesity: TSNO). The male TSOD mice constantly showed signs of obesity and urinary glucose with increases in food and water intake, body weight and some fat weight. The body mass index (BMI) clearly showed moderate obesity. Increases in the levels of diabetic blood parameters (glucose, insulin and lipids) were also found in males, in which the levels of blood glucose and insulin were high to the ages past the growth peak. In the histological studies, pancreatic islets of the TSOD males were found hypertrophic without any signs of insulitis or fibrous formation. Among these diabetic characteristics, some of which were similar to the reported models of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), the stable appearances of the hyperglycemia, the hyperinsulinemia and the hypertrophy of pancreatic islets to the ages past the growth peak were the prominent features. In these respect the TSOD mouse may be a useful model for researching the mechanisms of human diabetes and its complications. (+info)
Genetic regulation of long-term nonprogression in E-55+ murine leukemia virus infection in mice.
Certain inbred mouse strains display progression to lymphoma development after infection with E-55+ murine leukemia virus (E-55+ MuLV), while others demonstrate long-term nonprogression. This difference in disease progression occurs despite the fact that E-55+ MuLV causes persistent infection in both immunocompetent BALB/c-H-2(k) (BALB.K) progressor (P) and C57BL/10-H-2(k) (B10.BR) long-term nonprogressor (LTNP) mice. In contrast to immunocompetent mice, immunosuppressed mice from both P and LTNP strains develop lymphomas about 2 months after infection, indicating that the LTNP phenotype is determined by the immune response of the infected mouse. In this study, we used bone marrow chimeras to demonstrate that the LTNP phenotype is associated with the genotype of donor bone marrow and not the recipient microenvironment. In addition, we have mapped a genetic locus that may be responsible for the LTNP trait. Microsatellite-based linkage analysis demonstrated that a non-major histocompatibility complex gene on chromosome 15 regulates long-term survival and is located in the same region as the Rfv3 gene. Rfv3 is involved in recovery from Friend virus-induced leukemia and has been demonstrated to regulate neutralizing virus antibody titers. In our studies, however, both P and LTNP strains produce similar titers of neutralizing and cytotoxic anti-E-55+ MuLV. Therefore, while it is possible that Rfv3 influences the course of E-55+ MuLV infection, it is more likely that the LTNP phenotype in E-55+ MuLV-infected mice is regulated by a different, closely linked gene. (+info)