A muscle-powered energy delivery system and means for chronic in vivo testing.
Electrically stimulated skeletal muscle represents a potentially unlimited source of energy for the actuation of motor prostheses. Devices to harvest and deliver contractile power have proven mechanically feasible, but long-term efficacy has not been demonstrated. This report describes recent refinements in muscle energy converter (MEC) design and details the development of an implantable afterload chamber (IAC) designed to facilitate implant testing. The IAC comprises a fluid-filled bladder housed within a titanium cylinder that connects directly to the MEC. A vascular access port allows percutaneous measurement and adjustment of air pressure within the housing and provides a means both to monitor MEC function and to control hydraulic loading conditions. Data from in vitro tests show that IAC pressure mirrors changes in MEC-piston displacement over a wide range of actuation speeds and stroke lengths. Stroke lengths and actuation forces calculated from IAC pressure readings were typically found to be within 5% of measured values. This testing scheme may yield important information in regard to the ability to harness energy from in situ muscle over prolonged periods. (+info)
Bone response to orthodontic loading of endosseous implants in the rabbit calvaria: early continuous distalizing forces.
The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of early orthodontic loading on the stability and bone-implant interface of titanium implants in a rabbit model. Twenty-four short threaded titanium fixtures were inserted in the calvarial mid-sagittal suture of 10 rabbits. Two weeks following insertion, 20 implants (test group) were subjected to continuous distalization forces of 150 g for a period of 8 weeks. The remaining four implants (control group) were left unloaded for the same follow-up interval. Clinically, all implants except for one test fixture were stable, and exhibited no mobility or displacement throughout the experimental loading period. Histologically, all stable implants were well-integrated into bone. No differences could be found between the pressure and tension surfaces of the test implants relative to bone quality and density within a range of 1000 microns from the fixture surface. Similarly, qualitative differences were not observed between the apical and coronal portions of test fixtures. Morphometrically, a mean percentage bone-to-implant contact of 76.00 +/- 18.73 per cent was found at the test pressure sides, 75.00 +/- 11.54 per cent at the test tension sides, and 68.00 +/- 15.55 per cent at the control unloaded surfaces. No statistically significant differences in the percentage of bone-to-metal contact length fraction were found between test pressure surfaces, test tension surfaces, and unloaded control surfaces. Marginal bone resorption around the implant collar or immediately beneath it was found in roughly the same percentage of analysed sites in the test and control fixtures. In contrast, slight bone apposition was demonstrated at the implant collar of the test pressure surfaces, while no apposition or resorption were observed in the test tension zones. This study suggests that short endosseous implants can be used as anchoring units for orthodontic tooth movement early in the post-insertion healing period. (+info)
Elastin calcification and its prevention with aluminum chloride pretreatment.
Elastin, an abundant structural protein present in the arterial wall, is prone to calcification in a number of disease processes including porcine bioprosthetic heart valve calcification and atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of elastin calcification are not completely elucidated. In the present work, we demonstrated calcification of purified elastin in rat subdermal implants (Ca(2+) = 89.73 +/- 9.84 microgram/mg after 21 days versus control, unimplanted Ca(2+) = 0.16 +/- 0.04 microgram/mg). X-ray diffraction analysis along with resolution enhanced FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated the mineral phase to be a poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite. We investigated the time course of calcification, the effect of glutaraldehyde crosslinking on calcification, and mechanisms of inhibition of elastin calcification by pretreatment with aluminum chloride (AlCl(3)). Glutaraldehyde pretreatment did not affect calcification (Ca(2+) = 89.06 +/- 17.93 microgram/mg for glutaraldehyde crosslinked elastin versus Ca(2+) = 89.73 +/- 9.84 microgram/mg for uncrosslinked elastin). This may be explained by radioactive ((3)H) glutaraldehyde studies showing very low reactivity between glutaraldehyde and elastin. Our results further demonstrated that AlCl(3) pretreatment of elastin led to complete inhibition of elastin calcification using 21-day rat subdermal implants, irrespective of glutaraldehyde crosslinking (Ca(2+) = 0.73-2.15 microgram/mg for AlCl(3) pretreated elastin versus 89.73 +/- 9.84 for untreated elastin). The AlCl(3) pretreatment caused irreversible binding of aluminum ions to elastin, as assessed by atomic emission spectroscopy. Moreover, aluminum ion binding altered the spatial configuration of elastin as shown by circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy studies, suggesting a net structural change including a reduction in the extent of beta sheet structures and an increase in coil-turn conformations. Thus, it is concluded that purified elastin calcifies in rat subdermal implants, and that the AlCl(3)-pretreated elastin completely resists calcification due to irreversible aluminum ion binding and subsequent structural alterations caused by AlCl(3). (+info)
Effects of TGFbeta on bone ingrowth in the presence of polyethylene particles.
We implanted bone harvest chambers (BHCs) bilaterally in ten mature male New Zealand white rabbits. Polyethylene particles (0.3+/-0.1 microm in diameter, 6.4 x 10(12) particles/ml) were implanted for two, four or six weeks bilaterally in the BHCs, with subsequent removal of the ingrown tissue after each treatment. In addition to the particles, one side also received 1.5 microg of recombinant transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1). At two weeks, the bone area as a percentage of total area was less in chambers containing TGFbeta compared with those with particles alone (7.8+/-1.3% v 16.9+/-2.7% respectively; 95% confidence interval (CI) for difference -14.0 to -4.30; p = 0.002). At four weeks, the percentage area of bone was greater in chambers containing TGFbeta compared with those with particles alone (31.2+/-3.4% v 22.5+/-2.0% respectively; 95% CI for difference 1.0 to 16.4; p = 0.03). There were no statistical differences at six weeks, despite a higher mean value with TGFbeta treatment (38.2+/-3.9% v 28.8 +/-3.5%; 95% CI for difference -4.6 to 23.3; p = 0.16). The number of vitronectin-receptor-positive cells (osteoclast-like cells) was greater in the treatment group with TGFbeta compared with that with particles alone; most of these positive cells were located in the interstitium, rather than adjacent to bone. TGFbeta1 is a pleotropic growth factor which can modulate cellular events in the musculoskeletal system in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Our data suggest that there is an early window at between two and six weeks, in which TGFbeta may favourably affect bone ingrowth in the BHC model. Exogenous growth factors such as TGFbeta may be a useful adjunct in obtaining osseointegration and bone ingrowth, especially in revisions when there is compromised bone stock and residual particulate debris. (+info)
A site of auditory experience-dependent plasticity in the neural representation of auditory space in the barn owl's inferior colliculus.
The barn owl's optic tectum contains a map of auditory space that is based, in part, on a map of interaural time difference (ITD). Previous studies have shown that this ITD map is shaped by auditory experience. In this study, we investigated whether the plasticity responsible for experience-induced changes in ITD tuning in the tectum occurs within the tectum itself or at an earlier stage in the auditory pathway. We altered auditory experience in young owls by implanting an acoustic filtering device in one ear that caused frequency-dependent changes in sound timing and level. We analyzed the representation of ITD in normal and device-reared owls in two nuclei in the ascending pathway: the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX), the primary source of ascending auditory input to the tectum, and the lateral shell of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICCls), the primary source of input to the ICX. In the ICX, device rearing caused adaptive, frequency-dependent changes in ITD tuning, as well as changes in frequency tuning. These changes in tuning were similar to changes that occurred in the optic tectum in the same owls. In contrast, in the ICCls, tuning for ITD and frequency was unaffected by device rearing. The data indicate that plasticity at the level of the ICX is largely responsible for the adaptive adjustments in ITD tuning and frequency tuning that are observed in the optic tecta of owls raised with abnormal auditory experience. (+info)
Dense packing of cerebral aneurysms: an in vitro study with detachable platinum coils.
Aneurysm models were used to study the density of packing after coil embolization. Platinum coils were introduced until the point of minimally dense packing, indicated by aneurysmal circulatory exclusion. Packing was continued up to the point of maximal density, indicated by protrusion into the parent artery. Volumetric ratios (coil volume/aneurysmal volume) were calculated for minimally and maximally dense packing. Maximally dense packing ratios were a little higher than the minimally dense ratios, but less than 37%. (+info)
The effects of the concentration of high-density polyethylene particles on the bone-implant interface.
We used a rat model in vivo to study the effects of the concentration of polyethylene particles on the bone-implant interface around stable implants in the proximal tibia. Intra-articular injections of 10(4), 10(6) or 10(8) high-density polyethylene (HDPE) particles per joint were given 8, 10 and 12 weeks after surgery. The animals were killed after 14 and 26 weeks and the response at the interface determined. Fibrous tissue was seen at the bone-implant interface when the head of the implant was flush with the top of the tibia but not when it was sunk below the tibial plateau. In the latter case the implant was completely surrounded by a shell of bone. The area of fibrous tissue and that of the gap between the implant and bone was related to the concentration of particles in the 14-week group (p < 0.05). Foreign-body granulomas containing HDPE particles were seen at the bone-implant interface in animals given 10(8) particles. The pathology resembles that seen around prostheses with aseptic loosening and we suggest that this is a useful model by which to study this process. (+info)
Porous apatite-wollastonite glass-ceramic as an intramedullary plug.
We evaluated the efficacy and biocompatibility of porous apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic (AW-GC) as an intramedullary plug in total hip replacement (THR) for up to two years in 22 adult beagle dogs. Cylindrical porous AW-GC rods (70% porosity, mean pore size 200 microm) were prepared. Four dogs were killed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months each and six at 24 months after implantation. Radiological evaluation confirmed the efficacy of porous AW-CG as an intramedullary plug. Histological evaluation showed osteoconduction at one month and resorption of the porous AW-GC, which was replaced by newly-formed bone, at 24 months. Our findings indicate that porous AW-GC can be used clinically as an intramedullary plug in THR. (+info)