Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control.
The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies. (+info)
Skeletal muscle type ryanodine receptor is involved in calcium signaling in human B lymphocytes.
The regulation of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in B cells remains poorly understood and is presently explained almost solely by inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)-mediated Ca2+ release, followed by activation of a store-operated channel mechanism. In fact, there are reports indicating that IP3 production does not always correlate with the magnitude of Ca2+ release. We demonstrate here that human B cells express a ryanodine receptor (RYR) that functions as a Ca2+ release channel during the B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-stimulated Ca2+ signaling process. Immunoblotting studies showed that both human primary CD19(+) B and DAKIKI cells express a 565-kDa immunoreactive protein that is indistinguishable in molecular size and immunoreactivity from the RYR. Selective reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and sequencing of cloned cDNA indicated that the major isoform of the RYR expressed in primary CD19(+) B and DAKIKI cells is identical to the skeletal muscle type (RYR1). Saturation analysis of [3H]ryanodine binding yielded Bmax = 150 fmol/mg of protein and Kd = 110 nM in DAKIKI cells. In fluo-3-loaded CD19(+) B and DAKIKI cells, 4-chloro-m-cresol, a potent activator of Ca2+ release mediated by the ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channel, induced Ca2+ release in a dose-dependent and ryanodine-sensitive fashion. Furthermore, BCR-mediated Ca2+ release in CD19(+) B cells was significantly altered by 4-chloro-m-cresol and ryanodine. These results indicate that RYR1 functions as a Ca2+ release channel during BCR-stimulated Ca2+ signaling and suggest that complex Ca2+ signals that control the cellular activities of B cells may be generated by cooperation of the IP3 receptor and RYR1. (+info)
Human triclonal anti-IgG gammopathy. I. Iso-electric focusing characteristics of the IgG, IgA and IgM anti-IgG and their heavy and light chains.
Human IgG, IgA and IgM anti-IgG autoantibodies have been isolated from the serum of an individual with Felty's syndrome. These were initially noted as soluble circulating serum complexes by analytical ultracentrifugation. Isolation was accomplished by solid phase immunoadsorption and each of the three antibody populations obtained was shown to be of restricted heterogeneity by liquid and polyacrylamide gel electrofocussing methods. Type kappa light chains were obtained from each protein. Co-isoelectric focusing experiments of all possible pairs of these light chains showed them to have identical net charge characteristics. Heavy chains obtained from each protein were also monoclonal and of differing isoelectric point. The availability of this serum provides a human model with which to study the changes which may occur in autoantibodies during the autoimmune response. (+info)
Pre-mRNA splicing of IgM exons M1 and M2 is directed by a juxtaposed splicing enhancer and inhibitor.
Splicing of certain pre-mRNA introns is dependent on an enhancer element, which is typically purine-rich. It is generally thought that enhancers increase the use of suboptimal splicing signals, and one specific proposal is that enhancers stabilize binding of U2AF65 to weak polypyrimidine (Py) tracts. Here, we test this model using an IgM pre-mRNA substrate, which contains a well-characterized enhancer. Although the enhancer was required for in vitro splicing, we found it had no effect on U2AF65 binding. Unexpectedly, replacement of the natural IgM Py tract, branchpoint, and 5' splice site with consensus splicing signals did not circumvent the enhancer requirement. These observations led us to identify a novel regulatory element within the IgM M2 exon that acts as a splicing inhibitor; removal of the inhibitor enabled splicing to occur in the absence of the enhancer. The IgM M2 splicing inhibitor is evolutionarily conserved, can inhibit the activity of an unrelated, constitutively spliced pre-mRNA, and acts by repressing splicing complex assembly. Interestingly, the inhibitor itself forms an ATP-dependent complex that contains U2 snRNP. We conclude that splicing of IgM exons M1 and M2 is directed by two juxtaposed regulatory elements-an enhancer and an inhibitor-and that a primary function of the enhancer is to counteract the inhibitor. (+info)
Innate and acquired humoral immunities to influenza virus are mediated by distinct arms of the immune system.
"Natural" Igs, mainly IgM, comprise part of the innate immune system present in healthy individuals, including antigen-free mice. These Igs are thought to delay pathogenicity of infecting agents until antigen-induced high affinity Igs of all isotypes are produced. Previous studies suggested that the acquired humoral response arises directly from the innate response, i.e., that B cells expressing natural IgM, upon antigen encounter, differentiate to give rise both to cells that secrete high amounts of IgM and to cells that undergo affinity maturation and isotype switching. However, by using a murine model of influenza virus infection, we demonstrate here that the B cells that produce natural antiviral IgM neither increase their IgM production nor undergo isotype switching to IgG2a in response to the infection. These cells are distinct from the B cells that produce the antiviral response after encounter with the pathogen. Our data therefore demonstrate that the innate and the acquired humoral immunities to influenza virus are separate effector arms of the immune system and that antigen exposure per se is not sufficient to increase natural antibody production. (+info)
Dietary effect of EPA-rich and DHA-rich fish oils on the immune function of Sprague-Dawley rats.
The dietary effect of fish oils (FOs) rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the immune function of Sprague-Dawley rats was compared with that of safflower oil. After 3 weeks of feeding at the 10% level of a dietary fat, the IgG and IgM production by splenocytes and IgG production by mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes were significantly higher in the FO-fed rats, while no significant difference was found in IgA or IgE productivity by both the spleen and MLN lymphocytes. In the FO-fed rats, peritoneal exudate cells released a lower amount of LTB4, reflecting their lower arachidonic acid level, and a higher amount of LTB5, reflecting their higher EPA level in phospholipids. On these EPA-rich FO exerted a stronger effect than DHA-rich FO immune functions. (+info)
Immunodeficiency due to a unique protracted developmental delay in the B-cell lineage.
A unique immune deficiency in a 24-month-old male characterized by a transient but protracted developmental delay in the B-cell lineage is reported. Significant deficiencies in the number of B cells in the blood, the concentrations of immunoglobulins in the serum, and the titers of antibodies to T-dependent and T-independent antigens resolved spontaneously by the age of 39 months in a sequence that duplicated the normal development of the B-cell lineage: blood B cells followed by immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, IgA, and specific IgG antibodies to T-independent antigens (pneumococcal polysaccharides). Because of the sequence of recovery, the disorder could have been confused with other defects in humoral immunity, depending on when in the course of disease immunologic studies were conducted. Investigations of X-chromosome polymorphisms suggested that the disorder was not X linked in that the mother appeared to have identical X chromosomes. An autosomal recessive disorder involving a gene that controls B-cell development and maturation seems more likely. In summary, this case appears to be a novel protracted delay in the development of the B-cell lineage, possibly due to an autosomal recessive genetic defect. (+info)
Predominant immunoglobulin A response to phase II antigen of Coxiella burnetii in acute Q fever.
Diagnosis of acute Q fever is usually confirmed by serology, on the basis of anti-phase II antigen immunoglobulin M (IgM) titers of >/=1:50 and IgG titers of >/=1:200. Phase I antibodies, especially IgG and IgA, are predominant in chronic forms of the disease. However, between January 1982 and June 1998, we observed anti-phase II antigen IgA titers of >/=1:200 as the sole or main antibody response in 10 of 1,034 (0.96%) patients with acute Q fever for whom information was available. In order to determine whether specific epidemiological or clinical factors were associated with these serological profiles, we conducted a retrospective case-control study that included completion of a standardized questionnaire, which was given to 40 matched controls who also suffered from acute Q fever. The mean age of patients with elevated phase II IgA titers was significantly higher than that usually observed for patients with acute Q fever (P = 0.026); the patients were also more likely than controls to live in rural areas (P = 0.026) and to have increased levels of transaminase in blood (P = 0.03). Elevated IgA titers are usually associated with chronic Q fever and are directed mainly at phase I antigens. Although the significance of our findings is unexplained, we herein emphasize the fact that IgA antibodies are not specific for chronic forms of Q fever and that they may occasionally be observed in patients with acute disease. Moreover, as such antibody profiles may not be determined by most laboratories, which test only for total antibody titers to phase I and II antigens, the three isotype-specific Ig titers should be determined as the first step in diagnosing Q fever. (+info)