Idiotype vaccination using dendritic cells after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma--a feasibility study.
The idiotype (Id) determinant on the multiple myeloma (MM) protein can be regarded as a tumor-specific marker. Immunotherapy directed at the MM Id may stem the progression of this disease. We report here on the first 12 MM patients treated at our institution with high-dose therapy and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) followed by Id immunizations. MM patients received PBSCT to eradicate the majority of the disease. PBSCT produced a complete response in 2 patients, a partial response in 9 patients and stable disease in 1 patient. Three to 7 months after high-dose therapy, patients received a series of monthly immunizations that consisted of two intravenous infusions of Id-pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DC) followed by five subcutaneous boosts of Id/keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) administered with adjuvant. Between 1 and 11 x 10(6) DC were obtained by leukapheresis in all patients even after PBSCT. The administration of Id-pulsed DC and Id/KLH vaccines were well tolerated with patients experiencing only minor and transient side effects. Two of 12 patients developed an Id-specific, cellular proliferative immune response and one of three patients studied developed a transient but Id-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response. Eleven of the 12 patients generated strong KLH-specific cellular proliferative immune responses showing the patients' immunocompetence at the time of vaccination. The two patients who developed a cellular Id-specific immune response remain in complete remission. Of the 12 treated patients, 9 are currently alive after autologous transplantation with a minimum follow-up of 16 months, 2 patients died because of recurrent MM and 1 patient succumbed to acute leukemia. These studies show that patients make strong anti-KLH responses despite recent high-dose therapy and that DC-based Id vaccination is feasible after PBSCT and can induce Id-specific T-cell responses. Further vaccine development is necessary to increase the proportion of patients that make Id-specific immune responses. The clinical benefits of Id vaccination in MM remain to be determined. (+info)
DNA vaccination against the idiotype of a murine B cell lymphoma: mechanism of tumor protection.
Several studies have shown that immunization with DNA, which encodes the idiotypic determinants of a B cell lymphoma, generates tumor-specific immunity. Although induction of antiidiotypic Abs has correlated with tumor protection, the effector mechanisms that contribute to tumor protection have not been clearly identified. This study evaluated the tumor protective effects of humoral and cellular immune mechanisms recruited by idiotype-directed DNA vaccines in the 38C13 murine B cell lymphoma model. Antiidiotypic Abs induced by DNA vaccination supported in vitro complement-mediated cytotoxicity of tumor cells, and simultaneous transfer of tumor cells and hyperimmune sera protected naive animals against tumor growth. However, in vitro stimulation of immune splenocytes with tumor cells failed to induce idiotype-specific cytotoxicity, and following vaccination, depletion of CD4 or CD8 T cell subsets did not compromise protection. Furthermore, protection of naive recipients against tumor challenge could not be demonstrated either by a Winn assay approach or by adoptive transfer of spleen and lymph node cells. Thus, in this experimental model, current evidence suggests that the tumor-protective effects of DNA vaccination can be largely attributed to idiotype-specific humoral immunity. (+info)
Regulation of NOD mouse autoimmune diabetes by T cells that recognize a TCR CDR3 peptide.
NOD mice spontaneously develop type I diabetes resulting from autoimmune destruction of their insulin-producing beta cells. Among the self-antigens targeted by NOD autoimmune T cells is a peptide, p277, from the sequence of the 60 kDa heat shock protein (hsp60). Common to the anti-p277 T cell populations of NOD mice is an idiotope, C9, that spans the CDR3 region of the C9 TCR. We now report: (i) that the C9 idiotope peptide can be presented directly to anti-C9 anti-idiotypic T cells by C9 T cells, (ii) that spontaneous anti-C9 anti-idiotypic T cell activity falls as disease progresses, but immunization can activate the anti-idiotypic T cells to regulate the autoimmune process, (iii) that the anti-idiotypic T cells secrete IFN-gamma, but appear to control the disease by down-regulating the IFN-gamma produced by the pathogenic population of anti-p277 T cells, (iv) that intrathymic administration of the C9 idiotope peptide at 1 week of age can accelerate the disease, and (v) that administering the p277 target peptide can up-regulate the anti-idiotypic T cells and arrest the disease process. Thus, the development of NOD diabetes can be regulated by a balance between anti-idiotypic and anti-target peptide autoimmunity, and anti-idiotypic regulation can lead to changes in the cytokine secretion of the autoimmune T cells involved in the disease process. (+info)
Cutting edge: proteasome involvement in the degradation of unassembled Ig light chains.
Several studies on disposal of nonsecreted Ig L chains have identified the endoplasmic reticulum as the site of degradation. Here, we examine degradation of a nonsecreted Ig L chain, T15L, and an experimentally endoplasmic reticulum-retained secretion-competent L chain, D16L, in the absence of H chains. We demonstrate that 1) degradation is specifically impaired by the proteasome-specific inhibitors carboxybenzyl-leucyl-leucyl-leucine vinyl sulfone (Z-L3VS) and lactacystin, 2) L chain degradation occurs early in the biosynthetic pathway, and 3) degradation does not require vesicular transport. Our findings indicate that previous assertions of L chain disposal within the endoplasmic reticulum must be modified. To our knowledge, we provide the first direct evidence supporting a new paradigm for removal of nonsecreted Ig L chains via dislocation to cytosolic proteasomes. (+info)
Neonatal exposure to idiotype induces Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses.
Exposure of neonatal mice to appropriate, cross-reactive Id (CRI) preparations alters immune responsiveness, ameliorates pathology, and prolongs survival of animals upon subsequent Schistosoma mansoni infection. However, because schistosome infections profoundly affect host immunobiology, which responses are effected by neonatal Id exposure alone and which responses are influenced by infection is unclear. To directly examine the schistosome soluble egg Ag (SEA)-specific immune responses altered by CRI exposure, neonatal mice were injected with CRI-expressing (CRI+) SEA-specific Ab preparations, SEA-specific Abs that did not express CRI (CRI-), or normal mouse Ig. At 9 wk of age, only mice that were neonatally exposed to CRI+ anti-SEA Abs displayed significant SEA-specific IgG serum levels and spleen cell proliferative responses. SEA-stimulated spleen cells from these CRI+-exposed mice also produced IFN-gamma, although not at significantly higher levels than mice receiving CRI- Id or normal mouse Ig. If CRI+-exposed mice were also injected with SEA at 8 wk of age, the 9-wk IFN-gamma responses were significantly higher than those of the other neonatal injection groups. The presence of both CRI and anti-CRI in the sera of animals neonatally injected with CRI, but receiving no exposure to S. mansoni Ags or infection, suggested a functional idiotypic network led to these responses. These data demonstrate that appropriate idiotypic exposure induces B and T cell responsiveness to the Ag recognized by the Id and support the hypothesis that neonatal idiotypic exposure can be an important immunoregulatory factor in schistosomiasis. (+info)
Idiotype vaccination in human myeloma: generation of tumor-specific immune responses after high-dose chemotherapy.
Igs contain unique portions, collectively termed idiotypes (Id), that can be recognized by the immune system. Id expressed by tumor cells in B-cell malignancies can be regarded as tumor-specific antigens and a target for vaccine immunotherapy. We have started a vaccination trial in multiple myeloma (MM) using Id-specific proteins conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as immunogens and low doses of subcutaneous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interleukin-2 (IL-2) as immunoadjuvants. Twelve patients who had previously been treated with high-dose chemotherapy followed by peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation entered this study from August 1995 to January 1998. All patients were in first remission at the time of vaccination. They received subcutaneous injections of Id vaccines and immunoadjuvants in an outpatient setting. The generation of Id-specific T-cell proliferative responses was documented in 2 patients, whereas a positive Id-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction was observed in 8 of the 10 patients studied. DTH specificity was confirmed in 1 patient by investigating the reactivity to synthetic peptides derived from the VDJ sequence of the tumor-specific Ig heavy chain. None of the patients generated soluble immune responses to Id, whereas the generation of soluble and cellular immune responses to KLH was observed in 100% and 80%, respectively. Eleven patients completed the treatment, whereas 1 patient failed to finish owing to progression of disease. Freedom from disease progression (FFDP), measured from the date of first Id/KLH injection to the date of first treatment after vaccination or last follow-up, ranged from 9 to 36 months. These data indicate that the immune competence status of MM patients is still susceptible to specific immunization after high-dose chemotherapy and PBPC transplantation. It remains to be determined whether generation of Id-specific immune responses can reduce the relapse rate of patients with minimal residual disease. (+info)
scFv multimers of the anti-neuraminidase antibody NC10: length of the linker between VH and VL domains dictates precisely the transition between diabodies and triabodies.
Single-chain Fv antibody fragments (scFvs) incorporate a polypeptide linker to tether the VH and VL domains together. An scFv molecule with a linker 5-12 residues long cannot fold into a functional Fv domain and instead associates with a second scFv molecule to form a bivalent dimer (diabody). Direct ligation of VH and VL domains further restricts association and forces three scFv molecules to associate into a trivalent trimer (triabody). We have defined the effect of linker length on scFv association by constructing a series of scFvs from anti-neuraminidase antibody NC10 in which the linker varied from one to four glycine residues. NC10 scFv molecules containing linkers of three and four residues showed a strong preference for dimer formation (diabodies), whereas a linker length of one or two glycine residues prevented the formation of diabodies and directed scFv association into trimers (triabodies). The data suggest a relatively strict transition from dimer (diabody) to trimer (triabody) upon reduction of the linker length from three to two glycine residues. Modelling studies are consistent with three residues as the minimum linker length compatible with diabody formation. Electron microscope images of complexes formed between the NC10 scFv multimers and an anti-idiotype Fab' showed that the dimer was bivalent for antigen binding and the trimer was trivalent. (+info)
Molecular and idiotypic analyses of the antibody response to Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan-protein conjugate vaccine in autoimmune and nonautoimmune mice.
The antibody response to Cryptococcus neoformans capsular glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) in BALB/c mice frequently expresses the 2H1 idiotype (Id) and is restricted in variable gene usage. This study examined the immunogenicity of GXM-protein conjugates, V (variable)-region usage, and 2H1 Id expression in seven mouse strains: BALB/c, C57BL/6, A/J, C3H, NZB, NZW, and (NZB x NZW)F(1) (NZB/W). All mouse strains responded to vaccination with GXM conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT), the relative magnitude of the antibody response being BALB/c approximately C3H > C57BL/6 approximately NZB approximately NZW approximately NZB/W > A/J. Analysis of serum antibody responses to GXM with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to the 2H1 Id revealed significant inter- and intrastrain differences in idiotype expression. Thirteen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (two immunoglobulin M [IgM], three IgG3, one IgG1, three IgG2a, two IgG2b, and two IgA) to GXM were generated from one NZB/W mouse and one C3H/He mouse. The MAbs from the NZB/W mouse were all 2H1 Id positive (Id(+)) and structurally similar to those previously generated in BALB/c mice, including the usage of a V(H) from the 7183 family and Vkappa5.1. Administration of both 2H1 Id(+) and Id(-) MAbs from NZB/W and C3H/H3 mice prolonged survival in a mouse model of cryptococcosis. Our results demonstrate (i) that V-region restriction as indicated by the 2H1 Id is a feature of both primary and secondary responses of several mouse strains; and (ii) that there is conservation of V-region usage and length of the third complementarity-determining region in antibodies from three mouse strains. The results suggest that V-region restriction is a result of antibody structural requirements necessary for binding an immunodominant antigen in GXM. (+info)