Analysis of V(H)-D-J(H) gene transcripts in B cells infiltrating the salivary glands and lymph node tissues of patients with Sjogren's syndrome.
OBJECTIVE: In patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS), B lymphocytes have been found to infiltrate salivary glands, resulting in sialadenitis and keratoconjunctivitis. The disease is frequently associated with benign and neoplastic lymphoproliferation. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether clonal B cell expansion takes place in lymphocytic infiltrations of salivary glands under (auto- [?]) antigen stimulation, by analyzing in more detail the variable part (V(H)-D-J(H)) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes expressed in these B cells. METHODS: Biopsies of the labial salivary glands and lymph nodes were performed on 2 female patients with SS. The Ig gene rearrangements in these tissues were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. RESULTS: A total of 94 V(H)-D-J(H) transcripts were cloned and sequenced. Our data suggest a polyclonal origin of the B cell infiltrates. In 92 of the transcripts, V(H) genes were modified by somatic mutation. Further analysis showed counterselection for replacement mutations within the framework regions, suggesting that those B cells were stimulated and selected for functional expression of a surface Ig. In labial salivary glands from both patients, clonally related B cells became evident. Members of 1 particular clone were found in both the lip and lymph node material. CONCLUSION: These data provide evidence, on the nucleotide sequence level, that an antigen-triggered clonal B cell expansion takes place in the salivary glands of patients with SS who do not have histologic evidence of developing lymphoma. It may be speculated that those B cell clones expand during disease progression, resulting in lymphomagenesis. (+info)
Exposed peptide core of IgA1 hinge region in IgA nephropathy.
BACKGROUND: The human IgA1 hinge region is a very unique O-linked glycopeptide, and its sialylation and galactosylation recently were reported to be defective in the serum IgA1 derived from patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). This study was performed to examine the underglycosylation of the IgA1 hinge region and consequent exposure of the peptide core in IgAN. METHODS: A polyclonal antibody against a synthetic human IgA1 hinge peptide, PVPSTPPTP SPSTPPTPSPS, (anti-sHP ab) was raised in rabbits and shown specifically to recognize the IgA1 which was treated with neuraminidase, beta-galactosidase and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. The reactivity of the anti-sHP ab against the purified serum IgA1 was compared among the following three groups: 39 patients with IgAN, 30 patients with other renal diseases (ORD) and 21 healthy controls (HC) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The reactivity was significantly higher in the IgAN group (mean +/- SD of OD 490 nm: 0.327 +/- 0.059) than in the ORD group (0.274 +/- 0.043, P=0.0002) and in the HC group (0.265 +/- 0.037, P<0.0001). No significant difference was observed between the latter two groups. The frequency of positive cases (> mean +/- 2SD of HC) was 46.2% (18/39) in the IgAN group, 6.7% (2/30) in the ORD group and 0% (0/21) in the HC group. CONCLUSIONS: It was suggested that the peptide core of the IgA1 hinge region is exposed aberrantly by a defective N-acetylgalactosaminylation and plays a possible role in the pathogenesis of IgAN. (+info)
Receptor-mediated targeting of fluorescent probes in living cells.
A strategy was developed to label specified sites in living cells with a wide selection of fluorescent or other probes and applied to study pH regulation in Golgi. cDNA transfection was used to target a single-chain antibody to a specified site such as an organelle lumen. The targeted antibody functioned as a high affinity receptor to trap cell-permeable hapten-fluorophore conjugates. Synthesized conjugates of a hapten (4-ethoxymethylene-2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one, phOx) and fluorescent probes (Bodipy Fl, tetramethylrhodamine, fluorescein) were bound with high affinity (approximately 5 nM) and specific localization to the single-chain antibody expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, and plasma membrane of living Chinese hamster ovary cells. Using the pH-sensitive phOx-fluorescein conjugate and ratio imaging microscopy, pH was measured in the lumen of Golgi (pH 6.25 +/- 0.06). Measurements of pH-dependent vacuolar H+/ATPase pump activity and H+ leak in Golgi provided direct evidence that resting Golgi pH is determined by balanced leak-pump kinetics rather than the inability of the H+/ATPase to pump against an electrochemical gradient. Like expression of the green fluorescent protein, the receptor-mediated fluorophore targeting approach permits specific intracellular fluorescence labeling. A significant advantage of the new approach is the ability to target chemical probes with custom-designed spectral and indicator properties. (+info)
Underglycosylation of IgA1 hinge plays a certain role for its glomerular deposition in IgA nephropathy.
This study was performed to isolate and investigate the IgA1 that could accumulate in glomeruli (glomerulophilic IgA1). IgA1 was fractionated by the electric charge and the reactivity to Jacalin. Serum IgA1 of IgA nephropathy patients was separated and fractionated using a Jacalin column and subsequent ion-exchange chromatography. The fractions were divided into three groups of relatively cationic (C), neutral (N), and anionic (A). IgA1 was also divided into Jacalin low (L), intermediate (I), and high (H) affinity fractions by serial elution using 25, 100, and 800 mM galactose. The left kidneys of Wistar rats were perfused with 2, 5, or 10 mg of each group of IgA1. The rats were sacrificed 15 min, 30 min, 3 h, or 24 h after the perfusion. The accumulation of each IgA1 in the glomeruli was then observed by immunofluorescence. The IgA1 of the fractions N and H separated by the two methods was definitely accumulated in the rat glomeruli with a similar pattern. The electrophoresis revealed that the macromolecular IgA1 was increased in fraction H compared with other fractions. Therefore, Jacalin high-affinity IgA1(fraction H) was applied on a diethylaminoethyl column and divided into electrically cationic (HC), neutral (HN), and anionic (HA). Only the asialo-Galbeta1,3GalNAc chain was identified in the fraction HN IgA1 by gas-phase hydrazinolysis. Furthermore, the IgA1 fraction was strongly recognized by peanut agglutinin, Vicia Villosa lectins, and antisynthetic hinge peptide antibody. These results indicated that the IgA1 molecules having the underglycosylated hinge glycopeptide played a certain role in the glomerular accumulation of IgA1 in IgA nephropathy. (+info)
Suppression of metastasis formation by a recombinant single chain antibody-toxin targeted to full-length and oncogenic variant EGF receptors.
Cytotoxic strategies which are directed to tumor-associated antigens might be most beneficial for cancer patients with minimal tumor load such as in an adjuvant setting after initial therapy. We have recently described a highly potent single chain antibody-toxin, scFv(14E1)-ETA, which consists of the variable domains of the antibody 14E1 genetically fused to a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A. ScFv(14E1)-ETA specifically recognizes the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the oncogenically activated receptor variant EGFRvIII, which have been implicated in the development of various human malignancies. Here we have investigated the antimetastatic activity of bacterially expressed scFv(14E1)-ETA and its disulfide-stabilized derivative ds-scFv(14E1)-ETA in a novel model for disseminated disease which is based on murine renal carcinoma cells subsequently transfected with the E. coli beta-galactosidase gene, and human full-length or variant EGFR cDNAs. Intravenous injection of these Renca-lacZ/EGFR and Renca-lacZ/EGFRvIII cells in syngenic Balb/c mice led to the formation of pulmonary metastases which were readily detectable upon excision of the lungs and X-gal staining. Systemic treatment of mice with scFv(14E1)-ETA resulted in the complete suppression of Renca-lacZ/EGFRvIII metastasis formation and drastically reduced the number of pulmonary Renca-lacZ/EGFR tumor nodules. The ds-scFv(14E1)-ETA derivative where the antibody variable regions are connected by an artificial disulfide bond displayed improved thermal stability at physiological temperature but due to reduced cytotoxic activity was less potent than the original scFv(14E1)-ETA in metastasis suppression. (+info)
Comparison of physical chemical properties of llama VHH antibody fragments and mouse monoclonal antibodies.
Antigen specific llama VHH antibody fragments were compared to antigen specific mouse monoclonal antibodies with respect to specificity, affinity and stability. The llama VHH antibody fragments and the mouse monoclonal antibodies investigated were shown to be highly specific for the protein antigen hCG or the hapten antigen RR-6. The affinity of the interaction between monovalent llama VHH antibody fragments and their antigen is close to the nanomolar range, similar to the bivalent mouse monoclonal antibodies studied. Llama VHH antibody fragments are similar to mouse monoclonal antibodies with respect to antigen binding in the presence of ammonium thiocyanate and ethanol. The results show that relative to antigen specific mouse monoclonal antibodies, antigen specific llama VHH fragments are extremely temperature stable. Two out of six llama VHHs are able to bind antigen specifically at temperatures as high as 90 degrees C, whereas four out of four mouse monoclonal antibodies are not functional at this temperature. Together with the finding that llama VHH fragments can be produced at high yield in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, these findings indicate that in the near future antigen specific llama VHH fragments can be used in for antibodies unexpected products and processes. (+info)
Structural requirements of the major protective antibody to Haemophilus influenzae type b.
Protective antibodies to the important childhood pathogen Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) are directed against the capsular polysaccharide (HibCP). Most of the antibody is encoded by a well-defined set of ("canonical") immunoglobulin genes, including the Vkappa A2 gene, and expresses an idiotypic marker (HibId-1). In comparison to noncanonical antibodies, the canonical antibody is generally of higher avidity, shows higher levels of in vitro bactericidal activity, and is more protective in infant rats. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we here characterize canonical HibCP antibodies expressed as antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) in Escherichia coli, define amino acids involved in antigen binding and idiotype expression, and propose a three-dimensional structure for the variable domains. We found that canonical Fabs, unlike a noncanonical Fab, bound effectively to HibCP in the absence of somatic mutations. Nevertheless, pronounced mutation-based affinity maturation was demonstrated in vivo. An almost perfect correlation was found between unmutated gene segments that mediated binding in vitro and those encoding canonical HibCP antibodies in vivo. Thus, the Vkappa A2a gene could be replaced by the A2c gene but not by the highly homologous sister gene, A18b, corresponding to the demonstrated usage of A2c but not of A18b in vivo. Similarly, only Jkappa1 and Jkappa3, which predominate in the response in vivo, were able to facilitate binding in vitro. These findings suggest that the restricted immunoglobulin gene usage in HibCP antibodies reflects strict structural demands ensuring relatively high affinity prior to somatic mutations-requirements met by only a limited spectrum of immunoglobulin gene combinations. (+info)
IgM heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 diversity is constrained by genetic and somatic mechanisms until two months after birth.
Due to the greater range of lengths available to the third complementarity determining region of the heavy chain (HCDR3), the Ab repertoire of normal adults includes larger Ag binding site structures than those seen in first and second trimester fetal tissues. Transition to a steady state range of HCDR3 lengths is not complete until the infant reaches 2 mo of age. Fetal constraints on length begin with a genetic predilection for use of short DH (D7-27 or DQ52) gene segments and against use of long DH (e.g., D3 or DXP) and JH (JH6) gene segments in both fetal liver and fetal bone marrow. Further control of length is achieved through DH-specific limitations in N addition, with D7-27 DJ joins including extensive N addition and D3-containing DJ joins showing a paucity of N addition. DH-specific constraints on N addition are no longer apparent in adult bone marrow. Superimposed upon these genetic mechanisms to control length is a process of somatic selection that appears to ensure expression of a restricted range of HCDR3 lengths in both fetus and adult. B cells that express Abs of an "inappropriate" length appear to be eliminated when they first display IgM on their cell surface. Control of N addition appears aberrant in X-linked agammaglobulinemia, which may exacerbate the block in B cell development seen in this disease. Restriction of the fetal repertoire appears to be an active process, forcing limits on the diversity, and hence range of Ab specificities, available to the young. (+info)