Humoral immunity to commensal oral bacteria in human infants: salivary secretory immunoglobulin A antibodies reactive with Streptococcus mitis biovar 1, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis during the first two years of life.
Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies reactive with the pioneer oral streptococci Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 and Streptococcus oralis, the late oral colonizer Streptococcus mutans, and the pioneer enteric bacterium Enterococcus faecalis in saliva samples from 10 human infants from birth to age 2 years were analyzed. Low levels of salivary SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with whole cells of all four species were detected within the first month after birth, even though S. mutans and E. faecalis were not recovered from the mouths of the infants during the study period. Although there was a fivefold increase in the concentration of SIgA between birth and age 2 years, there were no differences between the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with the four species over this time period. When the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with all four species were normalized to the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 in saliva, SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with these bacteria showed a significant decrease from birth to 2 years of age. Adsorption of each infant's saliva with cells of one species produced a dramatic reduction of antibodies recognizing the other three species. Sequential adsorption of saliva samples removed all SIgA antibody to the bacteria, indicating that the SIgA antibodies were directed to antigens shared by all four species. The induction by the host of a limited immune response to common antigens that are likely not involved in adherence may be among the mechanisms that commensal streptococci employ to persist in the oral cavity. (+info)
Infectious human immunodeficiency virus can rapidly penetrate a tight human epithelial barrier by transcytosis in a process impaired by mucosal immunoglobulins.
Mucosal surfaces are the main natural site of entry into the body for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Herein, an alternative mechanism for virus spread is described. The mechanism, which involves transcytosis of endosome-internalized HIV-particles, was generated by contact of HIV-infected cells with the apical surface of an epithelial cell line. Transcytosed viruses rapidly (in 20-30 min) access the serosal side of the epithelial barrier without infecting the epithelium itself. In turn, transcytosed HIV could infect host submucosal mononucleated target cells, and thus the infection could spread. An investigation was done to determine whether mucosal antibodies could block HIV transcytosis. Both secretory IgA (S-IgA) and IgG that were purified from colostrum from HIV-seropositive women impaired HIV transcytosis, irrespective of the level of the recombinant HIV envelope anti-gp160-specific activities in an ELISA. However, specific S-IgAs were more efficient than IgG. Therefore, mucosal-specific S-IgA to HIV-1 could be relevant to reducing infectivity of HIV-1 in corporeal fluids. (+info)
Mucosal immune system of the human genital tract.
In contrast to the pronounced dominance of secretory IgA over other immunoglobulin isotypes in human saliva, tears, milk, and gastrointestinal fluids, secretions of both female and male genital tracts contain more IgG than secretory IgA. Both IgG and IgA are derived, to a variable degree, from the systemic immunoglobulin pool as well as from local synthesis. The origin of IgG- and IgA-plasma cell precursors destined for the genital tract is unknown, but indirect evidence suggests that mucosal inductive sites localized in the rectum, small intestine, and especially in the nasal cavity contribute such precursors to the female genital tract. Several studies indicated that intranasal immunization of various species, including humans, was efficient at inducing antigen-specific antibody responses in the female genital tract; however, whether this route is also effective in males has not been explored. (+info)
Mucosal vaccination strategies for women.
Women were immunized orally, rectally, or vaginally with a recombinant cholera toxin B-containing vaccine to determine which of these mucosal immunization routes generate the greatest levels of antibody in the female genital tract and rectum. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of cholera toxin B-specific IgA and IgG antibody in serum and secretions before and after three immunizations. Each immunization route similarly increased specific IgG in serum and specific IgA in saliva. Only the vaginal route increased IgA antibodies in genital tract secretions and could be shown to induce a local IgG response. However, vaginal immunization failed to produce antibody in the rectum. In a similar fashion, rectal immunization elicited highest concentrations of locally derived IgA and IgG antibody in the rectum but was ineffective for generating antibody in the genital tract. The data suggest that local immunization may induce the greatest immune responses in the female genital tract and rectum of humans. (+info)
A simple and reproducible method for collecting nasal secretions in frail elderly adults, for measurement of virus-specific IgA.
The standard method for collection of respiratory secretions, by use of a nasal wash (NW) to measure virus-specific IgA, is problematic in frail elderly adults. Therefore, a simplified collection approach using a nasal swab (NS) is described. NW and NS samples were collected from healthy young and frail elderly adults, and IgA titers to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion and attachment glycoproteins were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Correlation between IgA titers in NW and NS was excellent for each of the antigens (correlation coefficients,.71-.93). In addition, NS results were reproducible when frail elderly subjects were sampled several weeks apart and were nearly equivalent to results from NW samples. The ability to sample nasal secretions by use of an NS when an NW is not technically feasible will facilitate the study of mucosal immunity to RSV as well as the study of mucosal response to candidate RSV vaccines in frail elderly populations. (+info)
Intranasal immunization against dental caries with a Streptococcus mutans-enriched fimbrial preparation.
Streptococcus mutans has been identified as the major etiological agent of human dental caries. The first step in the initiation of infection by this pathogenic bacterium is its attachment (i.e., through bacterial surface proteins such as glucosyltransferases, P1, glucan-binding proteins, and fimbriae) to a suitable receptor. It is hypothesized that a mucosal vaccine against a combination of S. mutans surface proteins would protect against dental caries by inducing specific salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies which may reduce bacterial pathogenesis and adhesion to the tooth surface by affecting several adhesins simultaneously. Conventional Sprague-Dawley rats, infected with S. mutans at 18 to 20 days of age, were intranasally immunized with a mixture of S. mutans surface proteins, enriched for fimbriae and conjugated with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) plus free cholera toxin (CT) at 13, 15, 22, 29, and 36 days of age (group A). Control rats were either not immunized (group B) or immunized with adjuvant alone (CTB and CT [group C]). At the termination of the study (when rats were 46 days of age), immunized animals (group A) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher salivary IgA and serum IgG antibody responses to the mixture of surface proteins and to whole bacterial cells than did the other two groups (B and C). No significant differences were found in the average numbers of recovered S. mutans cells among groups. However, statistically fewer smooth-surface enamel lesions (buccal and lingual) were detected in the immunized group than in the two other groups. Therefore, a mixture of S. mutans surface proteins, enriched with fimbria components, appears to be a promising immunogen candidate for a mucosal vaccine against dental caries. (+info)
Local secretory immunoglobulin A and postimmunization gastritis correlate with protection against Helicobacter pylori infection after oral vaccination of mice.
C57BL/6 mice were orally immunized with five weekly doses of 2 mg, 200 microgram, or 2 microgram of Helicobacter pylori (Sydney strain) whole-cell sonicate combined with cholera toxin. One week after the last vaccination, mice were challenged with 5 x 10(7) CFU of live H. pylori three times at 2-day intervals. At 6 or 18 weeks after the challenge, mice were sacrificed and bacterial cultures and histological studies of the stomach were performed. Vaccination with 2 mg/session or 200 microgram/session inhibited H. pylori colonization by 90 and 100%, respectively. These mice were considered protected. Lower levels of H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) were detected in fecal and saliva samples before challenge. However, a significant increase in IgA secretion in mucosal tissue and a higher labeling index for IgA-positive lumina of pyloric glands were noted in these mice in response to challenge and in a vaccine dose-dependent manner. In protected mice, however, severe gastritis characterized by marked infiltration of inflammation mononuclear cells was noted at 6 weeks after challenge, compared with the gastritis seen in unprotected mice or nonvaccinated, ordinarily infected mice. Marked expression of gamma interferon mRNA was detected in the stomach of all protected mice, and 50% of these mice expressed interleukin 4 (IL-4) or IL-5 mRNA. Our findings suggest that local secretory IgA antibody and severe postimmunization gastritis correlate well with protection of mice against H. pylori infection. (+info)
Breast milk immune factors in Bangladeshi women supplemented postpartum with retinol or beta-carotene.
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation of mothers postpartum may improve infant health, not only by increasing vitamin A delivery to the infant through breast milk but also by increasing delivery of milk immune factors. Our hypothesis was that postpartum supplementation with vitamin A increases milk concentrations of certain soluble immune factors. DESIGN: In a double-blind trial conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh, women at 1-3 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to receive until 9 mo postpartum 1) a single dose of 60 mg retinol as retinyl palmitate followed by daily placebos (n = 69), 2) daily doses of 7.6 mg beta-carotene (n = 72), or 3) daily placebos (n = 71). Milk samples collected at baseline and 3 mo postpartum were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and interleukin 8; by HPLC for total retinol; and by atomic absorption spectroscopy for sodium and potassium. RESULTS: After mammary epithelial permeability (defined as an elevated Na:K) and baseline immune factor concentrations were controlled for, there were no significant treatment effects on immune factors at 3 mo. Increased mammary permeability was common (25% of women at baseline and 12% at 3 mo) and was associated with higher concentrations of milk immune factors. Low body vitamin A stores at baseline, as assessed by the modified-relative-dose-response test, were associated with a higher Na:K, but neither retinol nor beta-carotene supplementation affected the prevalence of increased mammary permeability. CONCLUSIONS: Postpartum vitamin A supplementation does not increase milk concentrations of immune factors. The causes of increased mammary epithelial permeability in this population require further study. (+info)