False-positive results obtained with the Alexon ProSpecT Cryptosporidium enzyme immunoassay. (65/12862)

Cryptosporidium is known to cause diarrhea in immunocompromised patients and is also associated with outbreaks of disease due to food-borne and waterborne parasites. Traditional procedures, involving iodine staining of wet mounts of stool sediments and trichrome staining, lack the sensitivity to detect Cryptosporidium. Special staining procedures, such as the modified acid-fast and safranin stains, are generally employed. Less labor-intensive antigen detection assays have simplified detection; however, careful attention to local epidemiology is important because false-positive tests occur. Here, we report two incidents involving 62 false-positive results obtained with the Alexon ProSpecT Cryptosporidium enzyme immunoassay, which were deemed false-positive based on negative results obtained from extensive microscopic examinations.  (+info)

Enhanced production of monocyte chemotactic protein 3 in inflammatory bowel disease mucosa. (66/12862)

BACKGROUND: The beta chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3) has chemoattractant and activating capabilities in monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. AIMS: To investigate MCP-3 expression in inflammatory conditions of the human intestinal mucosa. PATIENTS: Forty five colon biopsy specimens from 18 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; 16 specimens from inflamed and 10 from non-inflamed areas) and 19 control patients were examined. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used for MCP-3 detection in tissue sections. Intestinal epithelial cell lines (HT-29, Caco-2, T-84) were stimulated with interleukin (IL) 1beta, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and examined for MCP-3 protein and mRNA expression using immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR, respectively. RESULTS: In tissue sections, MCP-3 protein was detected predominantly in epithelial cells, both in patients with IBD and in controls. MCP-3 staining was particularly pronounced at sites of active mucosal inflammation. The intensity of MCP-3 staining was positively correlated with the extent of epithelial destruction. In intestinal epithelial cell lines, MCP-3 mRNA was expressed, whereas MCP-3 protein was not consistently detected. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that MCP-3 protein is present in normal and inflamed intestinal tissue. MCP-3 production is substantially enhanced in areas of active inflammation, suggesting an immunoregulatory role of MCP-3 in intestinal inflammation.  (+info)

Mast cells are an important cellular source of tumour necrosis factor alpha in human intestinal tissue. (67/12862)

BACKGROUND: Several inflammatory disorders of the intestine are characterised by enhanced expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Monocytes and macrophages have been suggested as a major cellular source of TNF-alpha in human gut, whereas mast cells, although known to be capable of producing TNF-alpha, have been poorly examined in this respect. AIMS: To investigate whether human intestinal mast cells can produce TNF-alpha, and which factors regulate TNF-alpha production in these cells. METHODS: Mast cells were isolated from surgery tissue specimens of patients undergoing bowel resection because of cancer. Immunohistochemical studies were performed in biopsy specimens derived from 13 patients (two healthy controls, four with Crohn's disease, four with ulcerative colitis, three others). TNF-alpha mRNA and protein expression were studied in vitro by polymerase chain reaction, RNAse protection assay, western blot, and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in isolated purified human intestinal mast cells stimulated by IgE receptor crosslinking, intestinal bacteria, and lipopolysaccharide. Cellular localisation of TNF-alpha was examined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: TNF-alpha mRNA and protein were expressed constitutively in isolated human intestinal mast cells. Expression of TNF-alpha mRNA and release of TNF-alpha protein were substantially enhanced by IgE receptor crosslinking and by coculture of mast cells with intestinal bacteria; lipopolysaccharide had only marginal effects. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that approximately 60% of the lamina propria cells with immunoreactivity for TNF-alpha were mast cells. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that mast cells are an important source of TNF-alpha in the human intestinal mucosa.  (+info)

Bilirubin binding activity of cytokeratin 18 isolated from the porcine liver. (68/12862)

A porcine liver 40 kDa protein designated SBP40 isolated by affinity chromatography with agarose-linked spermine was identified as a porcine cytokeratin 18 on the basis of partial amino acid sequences of peptides derived by lysylendopeptidase digestion and by its reactivity with two commercially available preparations of monoclonal antibody. Immunohistochemistry revealed that SBP40 is localized at the hepatocyte membranes, preferentially in the bile canalicular area in accordance with the previously reported localization of cytokertain 18 in the murine liver. Affinity chromatography with agarose-linked bilirubin, a solubilization experiment of bilirubin from bilirubin-Sephadex G-10 complex, and gel-filtration of a mixture with bilirubin demonstrated that SBP40 or porcine cytokeratin 18 has binding affinity for bilirubin. These results suggest that cytokeratin 18 may play a role as a membrane reservoir in the event of transport and secretion of bile pigments in the liver.  (+info)

Glucose transporters and FDG uptake in untreated primary human non-small cell lung cancer. (69/12862)

PET imaging of malignant tumors with 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) as a tracer is a noninvasive diagnostic and prognostic tool that measures tumor metabolism. In this study, we assessed the relationships between FDG uptake and the expression of facilitative glucose transporters, the sizes of populations of proliferating cells and infiltrating macrophages in patients with primary non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). METHODS: FDG uptake and the expression of five glucose transporters and the proportions of proliferating cell and macrophage populations were studied in paraffin sections from untreated primary lung cancers by immunohistochemistry. The patients were imaged with FDG PET before surgery. RESULTS: All tumors could be detected by FDG PET. Uptake was correlated with tumor size (P = 0.004). FDG uptake was lower in adenocarcinomas (ACs) than in squamous cell carcinomas (SQCs) (P = 0.03) or large cell carcinomas (P = 0.002) [standardized uptake value corrected for lean body mass (SUL) = 5.42 +/- 2.77, 8.04 +/-3.25 and 10.42 +/- 4.54, respectively]. Glut-1 expression was significantly higher than that of any other transporter. All tumors tested (n = 23) were Glut-1-positive (70.8% +/- 26.1% of tumor cell area was positive and staining intensity was 2.8 +/- 1.2). Glut-1 expression was higher in SQCs (78% +/- 17.8% and 3.5 +/-0.6) than in ACs (47.5% +/- 30.3% and 1.6 +/- 1.1; P = 0.044 for positive tumor cell area and P = 0.005 for staining intensity). Proliferating cells constituted 15.3% +/- 13.1% of the cancer cells, and the average number of macrophages was 7.8% +/- 6.3%; neither correlated with FDG uptake. CONCLUSION: In this population of patients with NSCLC, Glut-1 is the major glucose transporter expressed. Both FDG uptake and Glut-1 expression appear to be associated with tumor size. No association was found between FDG uptake and either macrophage or proliferative cell populations.  (+info)

Hydrolytic activity is essential for aceclofenac to inhibit cyclooxygenase in rheumatoid synovial cells. (70/12862)

To investigate the mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug aceclofenac in humans, we studied the metabolism of aceclofenac in detail in primary cultured synovial cells of 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Aceclofenac and 4'-hydroxyaceclofenac are the major compounds in human blood after the administration of aceclofenac, but they had no inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase (COX) activity or COX expression in the rheumatoid synovial cells. In contrast, aceclofenac and 4'-hydroxyaceclofenac reduced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by the rheumatoid synovial cells. We also observed that aceclofenac and 4'-hydroxyaceclofenac were hydrolyzed into the COX inhibitors diclofenac and 4'-hydroxydiclofenac, respectively, by the rheumatoid synovial cells. However, the hydrolytic activity differed markedly among the cell preparations. Because the suppressive potency of aceclofenac and 4'-hydroxyaceclofenac against the PGE2 production was proportionally correlated with the hydrolytic activity in rheumatoid synovial cell preparations, we suggest that the suppressive effects of aceclofenac and 4'-hydroxy aceclofenac on PGE2 production are facilitated by the hydrolytic activity in rheumatoid synovial cells.  (+info)

Diagnostic difficulty in polycystic ovary syndrome due to an LH-beta-subunit variant. (71/12862)

We initially failed to confirm a case of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) because underestimation of LH concentrations due to a variant form of this hormone resulted in a misleadingly low LH/FSH ratio. A 26-year-old woman presented to our hospital with infertility. Given the presence of bilateral polycystic ovaries, oligomenorrhea and hirsutism. PCOS was suspected, but a normal LH/FSH ratio as measured by RIA led to diagnostic problems. When we remeasured LH and FSH using a chemical luminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA), the ratio of the LH concentration measured by RIA to that measured by CLEIA was 0.29, and the ratio of LH to FSH measured by CLEIA was 3.3 compared with 0.81 measured by RIA. We then diagnosed PCOS. The point mutations Trp8 to Arg8 and Ile15 to Thr15 in the LH subunit were detected in the corresponding gene. The patient's LH status represented variant and wild-type LH equally. She was therefore diagnosed as heterozygous for the mutant LH-beta. Histologic assessment of ovarian tissue after laparoscopic biopsy was compatible with a polycystic ovary.  (+info)

Comparison between virus isolation method, Papanicolaou stain, immunoperoxidase stain and polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of genital herpes. (72/12862)

Papanicolaou (Pap) stain, immunoperoxidase (IP) stain and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were evaluated against the virus isolation method for their sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in 96 women who were suspected of genital herpes. The result showed that the sensitivity of PCR, IP and Pap stain was 100, 92.0 and 62.7%, respectively, while the specificity was 76.2, 66.7 and 81.0%, respectively. PCR was even more sensitive than the virus isolation technique. As Pap stain is the technique routinely performed for diagnosing genital herpes in most of the hospitals in Thailand, its low sensitivity should be taken into consideration. Based on the investigation by all four techniques together, HSV infection was diagnosed in 91.6% of the cases suspected of genital herpes which reflected higher precision of the clinical diagnosis over Pap stain.  (+info)