Multicenter trial of the quantitative BTA TRAK assay in the detection of bladder cancer. (49/12862)

BACKGROUND: Human complement factor H-related protein (hCFHrp) is produced by several bladder cancer cell lines and may be useful as a cancer marker. The aim of this study was to compare urinary hCFHrp and cytology for the detection of bladder cancer found by cystoscopy in patients with suggestive signs, symptoms, or preliminary test results. METHODS: The BTA TRAK assay, a quantitative enzyme immunoassay for the bladder tumor-associated antigen in urine, was compared with exfoliative cytology in 220 patients (155 men, 65 women; mean age, 64.2 years) presenting with signs, symptoms, or preliminary diagnostic results suggestive of this disease. Cystoscopy was the standard of detection. RESULTS: In the 100 patients found to have bladder cancer, the overall sensitivities of the BTA TRAK assay (at a previously determined decision threshold of 14 kilounits/L) and cytology were 66% (66 of 100) and 33% (33 of 100), respectively (P <0.001). The BTA TRAK assay proved to be statistically more sensitive than cytology for tumor grades I and II and for stage Ta and T1 tumors. In contrast, the overall specificity of the BTA TRAK assay in the 120 patients without cystoscopically confirmed bladder cancer was 69% (83 of 120) and that of cytology was 99% (119 of 120; P <0.001). The specificity of the BTA TRAK assay was higher in patients without benign or malignant genitourinary disease other than bladder cancer (76%; n = 89) than in patients with these conditions. When the BTA TRAK assay and cytology were used together such that a positive result in either test was scored as positive and the results compared with those of the BTA TRAK assay alone, increases in overall sensitivity and equivalent specificity were observed. CONCLUSION: Because of its relatively high sensitivity, the BTA TRAK assay could complement cytology as an adjunct to cystoscopy in the diagnosis and follow-up of most patients with bladder cancer.  (+info)

Secretion imbalance between tumour necrosis factor and its inhibitor in inflammatory bowel disease. (50/12862)

BACKGROUND: Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and TNF-beta are soluble ligands binding to TNF receptors with similar activities; soluble TNF receptors neutralise TNF activity by acting as inhibitors. Little is known about the cytokine/soluble receptor role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIMS: To test the hypothesis that an imbalance in secretion between TNF and TNF inhibitors plays a role in gut inflammation in patients with IBD. METHODS: The secretion of TNF-alpha, TNF-beta, and soluble TNF receptors was compared in the culture supernatants of colonic biopsy specimens and isolated lamina propria mononuclear cells from patients with active colonic IBD. RESULTS: Spontaneous secretion of TNF-alpha in involved IBD mucosa was higher than in normal control and self limited colitis mucosa. Secretion of TNF-beta was higher in patients with Crohn's disease than in those with ulcerative colitis. Soluble TNF receptor in IBD mucosa inhibited TNF activity. Type 2 soluble receptor release from IBD mucosa was increased in active inflammation; release from lamina propria cells was not increased. Mucosal TNF-alpha production correlated with severity of disease. CONCLUSIONS: Results showed enhanced secretion of TNF-alpha but failure to release enhanced amounts of soluble TNF receptor in lamina propria mononuclear cells of patients with IBD. An imbalance in secretion between TNF and TNF inhibitor may be implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD.  (+info)

Role of nitric oxide in pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis in rats. (51/12862)

The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis was investigated by using an experimental model of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis in Lewis rats. The expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA determined by Northern blotting was observed first in the olfactory bulb and the brain stem on day 5 after intranasal inoculation of HSV-1, and thereafter iNOS mRNA was detected in other brain regions, i.e., cerebrum and cerebellum. In various parts of the brain, excessive NO production was identified by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The temporal and spatial patterns of iNOS expression coincided with those of viral propagation, as demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction for HSV-1 gene expression as well as by the plaque-forming assay. Immunohistochemical study determined that iNOS was localized mainly in monocyte-derived macrophages. Treatment of virus-infected animals with the NOS inhibitor Nomega-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA), but not Nomega-monomethyl-d-arginine, significantly ameliorated not only clinical symptoms such as paralysis and seizures but also mortality. Virus yield from brain tissue was not affected by l-NMMA treatment. It is of interest that increased expression of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 was observed in the HSV-1-infected brain; this increased expression was strongly inhibited by l-NMMA treatment. These data suggest that the high level of NO produced by iNOS is a pathogenic factor in HSV-1-induced encephalitis in rats.  (+info)

A simple and reproducible method for collecting nasal secretions in frail elderly adults, for measurement of virus-specific IgA. (52/12862)

The standard method for collection of respiratory secretions, by use of a nasal wash (NW) to measure virus-specific IgA, is problematic in frail elderly adults. Therefore, a simplified collection approach using a nasal swab (NS) is described. NW and NS samples were collected from healthy young and frail elderly adults, and IgA titers to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion and attachment glycoproteins were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Correlation between IgA titers in NW and NS was excellent for each of the antigens (correlation coefficients,.71-.93). In addition, NS results were reproducible when frail elderly subjects were sampled several weeks apart and were nearly equivalent to results from NW samples. The ability to sample nasal secretions by use of an NS when an NW is not technically feasible will facilitate the study of mucosal immunity to RSV as well as the study of mucosal response to candidate RSV vaccines in frail elderly populations.  (+info)

Experimental infection of human volunteers with Haemophilus ducreyi does not confer protection against subsequent challenge. (53/12862)

Two groups of human volunteers were inoculated with 2 doses of live Haemophilus ducreyi 35000HP. The reinfection group consisted of 7 subjects who previously had participated in experimental infection with 35000HP to the pustular stage of disease. The control group consisted of 7 naive subjects. Papules developed at 92.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.1%-99.8%) of sites inoculated with live bacteria, in the reinfection group, and at 85.7% (95% CI, 57.2%-98. 2%) of sites in the control group. Sixty-nine percent (95% CI, 36. 8%-90.9%) of papules evolved into pustules in the reinfection group, compared with 41% (95% CI, 15.2%-72.3%) in the control group. The recovery rates of H. ducreyi from surface cultures and the histopathology of biopsies obtained from both groups were similar. Thus, experimental infection to the pustular stage of disease does not provide protective immunity against subsequent challenge.  (+info)

Origin of acinar cell regeneration after atrophy of the rat parotid induced by duct obstruction. (54/12862)

Acinar cell regeneration in the rat parotid gland after atrophy induced by a one week period of duct obstruction was examined using histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For immunohistochemistry, antibodies to 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), injected one hour before tissue collection, and cytokeratin were employed. When clips were removed from the duct, only ductal epithelial cells remained; all acinar cells had been deleted. Some duct cells were BrdU positive. After three days, newly-formed acini comprising immature acinar cells had appeared; many of the cells were BrdU positive and mitotic figures were readily identified. Thereafter progressive acinar cell maturation and proliferation occurred, parotid gland weight returning to control levels by 7 days. Peak BrdU labelling indices for duct and acinar cells were on days 0 and 4, respectively. By TEM, cytoplasmic organelles in epithelial cells of transitional duct-acinar structures seen at 2 days were poorly developed. Immature acinar cells seen on day 3 contained zymogen granules and had increased endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. By day 5, maturing acinar cells had abundant endoplasmic reticulum and zymogen granules, resembling acinar cells in control glands. These observations indicated origin of acinar cell precursors from duct cells during regeneration of the acinar cell-free atrophic gland. Subsequent expansion of the acinar cell population was dependent on maturation and proliferation of these newly-formed cells.  (+info)

The bcl-2 knockout mouse exhibits marked changes in osteoblast phenotype and collagen deposition in bone as well as a mild growth plate phenotype. (55/12862)

Histological examination of long bones from 1-day-old bcl-2 knockout and age-matched control mice revealed no obvious differences in length of bone, growth plate architecture or stage of endochondral ossification. In 35-day-old bcl-2 knockout mice that are growth retarded or 'dwarfed'. the proliferative zone of the growth plate appeared slightly thinner and the secondary centres of ossification less well developed than their age-matched wild-type controls. The most marked histological effects of bcl-2 ablation were on osteoblasts and bone. 35-day-old knockout mouse bones exhibited far greater numbers of osteoblasts than controls and the osteoblasts had a cuboidal phenotype in comparison with the normal flattened cell appearance. In addition, the collagen deposited by the osteoblasts in the bcl-2 knockout mouse bone was disorganized in comparison with control tissue and had a pseudo-woven appearance. The results suggest an important role for Bcl-2 in controlling osteoblast phenotype and bone deposition in vivo.  (+info)

De novo expression of CD44 in prostate carcinoma is correlated with systemic dissemination of prostate cancer. (56/12862)

AIMS: To evaluate the role of CD44 in early steps in the development of prostate cancer, and to assess the biological significance of preneoplastic lesions in prostate cancer. METHODS: 38 patients with clinically localised prostate cancer were studied. The standard form of CD44 (CD44H) and v6 isoform expressions were semiquantitatively evaluated on paraffin embedded tumour tissue by immunohistochemistry. Disseminated prostatic cells were detected by prostate specific membrane antigen reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in the blood of each patient before radical prostatectomy. RESULTS: In normal or benign prostate glands, only basal cells showed CD44H and v6 labelling. Fourteen of the 38 prostate cancers (37%) had CD44H membranous staining of prostatic tumour cells. In 18 patients (47%), circulating prostatic cells were detected in blood before surgery. Although no correlation between the expression of CD44 and the Gleason score or staging was observed, a significant correlation was found between the expression of CD44H by tumour cells and prostatic cell blood dissemination (p = 0.04). In 28 cases, foci of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia were observed, and nine had CD44H immunostaining. CONCLUSIONS: De novo expression of CD44 by prostatic tumour cells is associated with systemic dissemination of prostate cells independently of pathological criteria.  (+info)