Echocardiography-derived left ventricular end-systolic regional wall stress and matrix remodeling after experimental myocardial infarction.
(41/12862)OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that regional end-systolic left ventricular (ESLV) wall stress is associated with extracellular matrix remodeling activity after myocardial infarction (MI). BACKGROUND: Increased left ventricular (LV) wall stress is a stimulus for LV enlargement, and echocardiography can be used to estimate regional wall stress. A powerful validation of a noninvasive method of estimating wall stress would be predicting cellular responses after a MI. METHODS: Echocardiographic images were obtained in rats 1, 7, 14 or 21 days after coronary ligation (n = 11) or sham surgery (n = 5). End-systolic left ventricular wall stress was calculated by finite element analysis in three regions (infarcted, noninfarcted and border) from short-axis images. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and macrophage density were determined by immunohistochemistry, and positive cells were counted in high power fields (hpf). RESULTS: Average ESLV wall stress was higher in rats with MI when compared to shams irrespective of time point (p < 0.01), and ESLV wall stress in the infarcted regions increased with time (25.1 +/- 5.9 vs. 69.9 +/- 4.4 kdyn/cm2, day 1 vs. 21; p < 0.01). Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression was higher in infarcted and border regions when compared to noninfarcted regions (22.1 vs. 25.7 vs. 0.10 cells/hpf, respectively; p < 0.01). Over all regions, ESLV wall stress was associated with MMP-9 (r = 0.76; p < 0.001), macrophage density (r = 0.72; p < 0.001) and collagen content (r = 0.67; p < 0.001). End-systolic left ventricular wall stress was significantly higher when MMP-9 positive cell density was greater than 10 cells/hpf (45+/-20 vs. 14+/-10 kdyn/cm2; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Regional increases in ESLV wall stress determined by echocardiography-based structural analysis are associated with extracellular matrix degradation activity. (+info)
A modified immunoperoxidase assay for detection of antibody porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus in swine sera.
(42/12862)MARC-145 cell monolayers infected with PRRS virus were fixed in 3% neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. The sections were stained by avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase (ABC) method. Test sera were applied to sections as primary antibodies. The positive reactions were detected by ABC method and indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA). There was good correlation between ABC and IFA, and the titers in ABC were higher than those in IFA. The present results indicate that the immunohistochemical staining is a useful test for the detection and quantitation of PRRS virus antibody in swine sera as well as IFA. (+info)
Localization of ubiquitin and ubiquitin cross-reactive protein in human and baboon endometrium and decidua during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy.
(43/12862)We have examined the distribution of ubiquitin and the related ubiquitin cross-reactive protein (UCRP) in paraffin-embedded sections of human and baboon endometrium and decidua by immunoperoxidase or immunofluorescence cytochemistry with antibodies raised against ubiquitin, UCRP, CD45, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1. Anti-ubiquitin immunoreactivity was present in the nonpregnant endometrium, particularly in the glandular epithelial cells, and up-regulated in endometrial stromal cells as they decidualized at the beginning of pregnancy. Anti-UCRP immunoreactivity was absent from nonpregnant tissue but accumulated to high levels in decidual cells during pregnancy. Western blotting indicated that immunoreactivity was primarily due to the presence of ubiquitin and UCRP conjugated to other proteins, and that although levels of ubiquitin-protein conjugates do not change substantially during pregnancy, decidualization is accompanied by the appearance of conjugates of UCRP. Baboon uterine tissues demonstrated a similar distribution of the two proteins, which indicates that the baboon may be a useful model for study of the role of the ubiquitin system and UCRP in the establishment of pregnancy in humans. (+info)
Tissue expression and immunolocalization of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in postinfarction dysfunctional myocardium.
(44/12862)BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is markedly elevated in advanced heart failure. It is not known whether tissue TNF-alpha is elevated in the common setting of myocardial infarction leading to heart failure and what the source of TNF-alpha is. To determine this, we studied the expression and protein localization of TNF-alpha and its 2 main receptors (TNF-R1/R2) in a rat model of large infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male rats were randomized to proximal left anterior descending ligation. The animals were killed on days 1, 3, 10, and 35 after ligation to examine gene expression and protein production of TNF-alpha and TNF-R1/R2 from the infarct, peri-infarct, and contralateral zones of infarcted heart. There was increased TNF-alpha mRNA production throughout the myocardium at day 1, and detectable expression persisted to day 35 after myocardial infarction. The expression of this cytokine is not confined strictly to the infarct or peri-infarct zones but is expressed by cardiac myocytes within the myocardium in the contralateral normal zone. Changes in gene expression are mirrored initially by augmented protein production within the myocytes. Levels of TNF-alpha protein in the infarct and peri-infarct zones rose early to 8- to 10-fold above normal levels and rose to 4- to 5-fold in the contralateral zone. Finally, expression of the TNF-R1 mRNA transcripts was upregulated at days 3 and 10 after ligation in the infarct and peri-infarct zones, suggesting that the signal transduction pathways necessary for TNF-alpha in the heart remain intact as TNF-alpha biosynthesis increases. CONCLUSIONS: TNF-alpha is present early in a model of large myocardial infarction and is sustained into the later stage within the myocardium. Expression of this cytokine is not only confined strictly to the infarct or peri-infarct zone but is expressed by cardiac myocytes within the myocardium contralateral to the infarct. Therefore TNF-alpha production forms a part of an important intrinsic myocardial stress response system to injury. (+info)
A critical evaluation of enzyme immunoassays for detection of antinuclear autoantibodies of defined specificities. I. Precision, sensitivity, and specificity.
(45/12862)OBJECTIVE: To determine the performance characteristics of enzyme-based immunoassay (EIA) kits for the detection of antinuclear and other autoantibodies of defined specificities. METHODS: Nine manufacturers of EIA kits to detect antibodies of defined specificities participated in a study in which they received coded sera from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. These coded sera contained different dilutions of antibody of one specificity mixed with sera containing antibodies of other specificities. The manufacturers were asked to use their standard technology to determine antibody content and send the data to a committee of the International Union of Immunological Societies for analysis. The data were analyzed for sensitivity and specificity in the detection of anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), anti-single-stranded DNA, antihistone, anti-Sm, anti-U1 RNP, anti-SSA/Ro, anti-SSB/La, anti-Scl-70 (DNA topoisomerase I), anticentromere, and anti-Jo-1 antibodies. In addition, replicate samples were included in the coded sera to evaluate the precision of each EIA method. RESULTS: Lack of sensitivity and specificity was most evident in the anti-dsDNA and anti-Sm kits, although 2 kits for anti-dsDNA achieved acceptable sensitivity and specificity. Generally, anti-SSA/Ro, anti-SSB/La, anti-Scl-70, anticentromere, and anti-Jo-1 kits performed well. Many false-positive results were obtained with a multiple myeloma serum containing cryoprecipitates, but multiple myeloma sera without cryoprecipitates presented no problem in the EIA system. Precision, based on evaluation of replicate samples, varied from very good to poor. CONCLUSION: No single manufacturer was clearly superior to others in terms of their products' overall sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Areas that needed improvement were in kits for the detection of antibodies to dsDNA and to Sm antigen. Some EIA kits achieved good sensitivity and specificity. Individual manufacturers were informed of the performance of their respective kits so they could take measures to correct perceived deficiencies and thus improve the reliability of a group of important diagnostic assays used in the evaluation of systemic rheumatic diseases. (+info)
Serum progesterone in predicting pregnancy outcome after assisted reproductive technology.
(46/12862)PURPOSE: Our purpose was to determine whether serum progesterone predicts pregnancy outcome after superovulation. METHODS: One hundred twenty-three consecutively pregnant patients were divided into three groups: group I, 55 patients following superovulation for assisted reproductive technologies; group II, 23 patients after correction of oligoovulation; and group III, 45 patients who conceived spontaneously. When beta-human chorionic gonadotropin was positive, progesterone was measured on the same serum sample. A serum progesterone level of 45 microns/L was set to differentiate between nonviable pregnancy and ongoing pregnancy. RESULTS: In group I, zero (0%) of 38 ongoing pregnancies and 10 (59%) of 17 nonviable pregnancies were observed with a progesterone level of < 45 microns/L [14.2 ng/ml (P < 0.001)]. In group II, 4 (27%) of 15 ongoing pregnancies and 5 (63%) of 8 nonviable pregnancies had a progesterone level of < 45 microns/L (P = NS). In group III, 10 (42%) of 24 ongoing pregnancies and 15 (71%) of 21 nonviable pregnancies were observed with a progesterone level of < 45 microns/L (14.2 ng/ml) (P = NS). CONCLUSIONS: A serum progesterone level of < 45 nM predicts nonviable pregnancy after superovulation for assisted reproductive technology. (+info)
Expression of folate receptor alpha in the mammalian retinol pigmented epithelium and retina.
(47/12862)PURPOSE: Folic acid is essential for DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, and deficiencies in folate can lead to nutritional amblyopia and optic neuropathy. The transport of folate from the choroidal blood supply to the retina is only now beginning to be understood. The reduced-folate transporter was reported recently to be present in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and is thought to be localized to the apical region of these cells. The authors hypothesize that the RPE plays a role in the vectorial transport of folate from the choroidal blood to the neural retina and uses not only the reduced-folate transporter but also the folate receptor alpha in mediating this transport. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the folate receptor alpha was present in the RPE and, if so, whether it was distributed along the basolateral membrane of the RPE, supporting a role for the protein in the initial steps of folate transport into the RPE. METHODS: The expression of the folate receptor alpha in mouse RPE was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), functional assays, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and laser scanning confocal microscopy. RESULTS: RT-PCR analysis, cloning of the RT-PCR product, and subsequent sequencing established that folate receptor alpha mRNA transcripts are expressed in the mouse RPE/choroid and are expressed also in the neural retina. A heterologous functional expression assay using MTX(R)-ZR-75-1 cells showed that the folate receptor alpha cDNA obtained by RT-PCR from the RPE/choroid complex and the neural retina was functional as assessed by the binding of folic acid and by the uptake of N5-methyltetrahydrofolate. In situ hybridization localized the folate receptor alpha mRNA to the mouse RPE cells and to cells of the neural retina. The folate receptor alpha was detected immunohistochemically in the mouse and rat RPE and in several layers of the neural retina. Laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed the distribution of the folate receptor alpha along the basolateral region of the RPE and not the apical region. CONCLUSIONS: The present work represents the first analysis of the folate receptor alpha expression in intact mammalian retina. The receptor is present and functional in mouse RPE. It is distributed specifically along the basolateral surface of the RPE and is proposed to work in a coordinated manner with the reduced-folate transporter in the vectorial transport of folate from the choroidal blood to the neural retina. (+info)
Apoptosis and caspases after ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat retina.
(48/12862)PURPOSE: Extensive cell loss in the retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL) and the inner nuclear layer (INL) was noted in a rat model of retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury by transient elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). The possible involvement of apoptosis and caspases was examined in this model of neuronal loss. METHODS: Transient elevated IOP was induced in albino Lewis rats through the insertion of a needle into the anterior chamber connected to a saline column. Elevated IOP at 110 mm Hg was maintained for 60 minutes. Groups of animals were euthanatized at various times after reperfusion, and their retinas were evaluated by morphology, agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL), immunohistochemistry of caspases II (ICH1) and III (CPP32), and morphometry. YVAD.CMK, a tetrapeptide inhibitor of caspases, was used to examine the involvement of caspases. RESULTS: A marked ladder pattern in retinal DNA gel analysis, typical of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and characteristic of apoptosis, was present 12 and 18 hours after reperfusion. Labeling of nuclei in the RGCL and the inner nuclear layer (INL) by TUNEL was noted between 8 and 18 hours after reperfusion. Histologic and ultrastructural features typical of apoptosis were also observed in the inner retina after ischemia. YVAD.CMK administered during the ischemic period inhibited apoptotic fragmentation of retinal DNA and ameliorated the tissue damage. When administered intravitreally 0, 2, or 4 hours after reperfusion, YVAD.CMK was also effective in preserving the inner retina but had no significant effect when administered 6 or 8 hours after reperfusion. The inner retina showed transient elevated immunoreactivity of caspases II and III 4 and 8 hours after reperfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal ischemia-reperfusion after transient elevated IOP induced apoptosis of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer and the INL. Caspases may have a pivotal role in the early events of the apoptotic pathway(s). Rescue by using anti-apoptotic agents after ischemia-reperfusion is feasible. (+info)