Circadian variation in the expression of cell-cycle proteins in human oral epithelium. (17/12862)

At the tissue level, there is experimental and clinical data to suggest a cytokinetic coordination of the cell cycle with a greater proportion of cycling cells entering S-phase and mitosis at specific times of the day. The association of certain cell-cycle proteins with defined events in the cell cycle is well established and may be used to study the timing of cell-cycle phases over 24 hours. In this study oral mucosal biopsies were obtained from six normal human volunteers at 4-hour intervals, six times over 24 hours. Using immunohistochemistry, the number of positive cells expressing the proteins p53, cyclin-E, cyclin-A, cyclin-B1, and Ki-67 was determined for each biopsy and expressed as the number of positive cells per mm of basement membrane. We found a statistically significant circadian variation in the nuclear expression of all of these proteins with the high point of expression for p53 at 10:56 hours, cyclin-E at 14:59 hours, cyclin-A at 16:09 hours, cyclin-B1 at 21:13 hours, and Ki-67 at 02:50 hours. The circadian variation in the nuclear expression of cyclins-E (G1/S phase), -A (G2-phase), and -B1 (M-phase) with a normal physiological progression over time suggests a statistically significant circadian variation in oral epithelial cell proliferation. The finding of a circadian variation in the nuclear expression of p53 protein corresponding to late G1 is novel. This information has clinical implications regarding the timing of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.  (+info)

Effects of chronic nitric oxide activation or inhibition on early hepatic fibrosis in rats with bile duct ligation. (18/12862)

Hepatic fibrosis or increased liver collagen contents drive functional abnormalities that, when extensive, may be life threatening. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the chronic stimulation or inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in rats with hepatic fibrosis induced by permanent common bile duct ligation (3 weeks) and the role of expression of the different nitric oxide synthase isoforms. Bile duct ligation led to an important accumulation of collagen in the hepatic parenchyma, as shown both histologically and by the hydroxyproline contents of livers. Bilirubin and serum enzyme activities (measured as markers of cholestasis) increased several-fold after bile duct ligation. The area of fibrotic tissue, liver hydroxyproline content and serum markers of cholestasis were clearly related in obstructed rats. The absence of modifications in haemodynamic parameters excludes circulatory changes from being responsible for the development of liver alterations. In animals treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) the area of fibrosis was similar to that of untreated animals, the signs of cholestasis and cellular injury being more evident. In rats treated with L-arginine the area of fibrosis was almost three times larger than that found in bile duct ligated rats and in L-NAME-treated bile duct ligated rats, although the observed biochemical changes were similar to those seen in rats treated with L-NAME. Our results with inducible nitric oxide synthase, obtained by Western blots and immunohistochemistry, indicate a greater expression of the inducible enzyme in bile duct ligated and L-arginine-treated animals and a lower expression in the L-NAME and control groups. Constitutive nitric oxide synthase expression, obtained by Western blots, was very similar in all groups, except for the L-arginine-treated rats in which it was lower. These results suggest that nitric oxide production may be a key factor in the development of fibrosis in bile duct ligated rats. They also support the hypothesis of a dual role for nitric oxide; one beneficial, mediated by its circulatory effects, and the second negative, through its local toxic effects.  (+info)

Clinical importance of c-Met protein expression in high grade astrocytic tumors. (19/12862)

The clinical importance of the expression of c-Met protein, the receptor of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, was evaluated in neuroepithelial tissue tumors. c-Met immunohistochemistry was performed using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with anti-c-Met polyclonal antibody. Specimens were classified as c-Met negative (< 30%) or c-Met positive (> or = 30%) according to the proportion of immunopositive cells under microscopic examination. All c-Met-positive cases occurred in high grade astrocytic tumors, not in other neuroepithelial tissue tumors. Most c-Met-positive astrocytic tumors were classified histologically as high grade tumors. Epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGFR) and MIB-1 immunohistochemistry were also performed for high grade astrocytic tumors. Survival analysis was performed for patients with these tumors with variables including c-Met positivity, EGFR positivity, and MIB-1 labeling index. Positivity of c-Met was independent from EGFR positivity and MIB-1 labeling index, and the c-Met-positive group showed a significant shorter survival (p < 0.05). c-Met immunopositivity may be a parameter of biological aggressiveness in high grade astrocytic tumors. Examination of c-Met expression in astrocytic tumors provides significant clinical information, especially as a prognostic factor.  (+info)

Timing of development of measles-specific immunoglobulin M and G after primary measles vaccination. (20/12862)

A standard method for diagnosing measles is to detect measles-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) in the serum of infected persons. Interpreting a positive IgM result from a person with suspected measles can be difficult if the person has recently received a measles vaccine. We have previously demonstrated that measles-specific IgM may persist for at least 8 weeks after primary vaccination, but it is unknown how quickly IgM appears. This study determined the timing of the rise of measles-specific IgM and IgG after primary measles vaccination with Schwartz vaccine. Two hundred eighty 9-month-old children from Ethiopia presenting for routine measles vaccination were enrolled. Sera were collected before and either 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks after vaccination and tested for measles-specific antibodies by an IgM capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and by an indirect IgG EIA. A total of 209 of the 224 children who returned for the second visit had prevaccination sera that were both IgM and IgG negative. The postvaccination IgM positivity rates for these 209 children were 2% at 1 week, 61% at 2 weeks, 79% at 3 weeks, and 60% at 4 weeks. The postvaccination IgG positivity rates were 0% at 1 week, 14% at 2 weeks, 81% at 3 weeks, and 85% at 4 weeks. We conclude that an IgM-positive result obtained by this antibody capture EIA is difficult to interpret if serum is collected between 8 days and 8 weeks after vaccination; in this situation, the diagnosis of measles should be based on an epidemiologic linkage to a confirmed case or on the detection of wild-type measles virus.  (+info)

Restricted isotypic antibody reactivity to hepatitis C virus synthetic peptides in immunocompromised patients. (21/12862)

An enzyme immunoassay based on three synthetic peptides from the core, NS4, and NS5 regions of hepatitis C virus allowed the detection of antibodies in 100% of immunocompetent infected patients and in 91% of immunocompromised patients (hemodialysis and hemophiliac patients). Immune impairment seemed to restrict the spectrum of antibody isotypes reacting to the core peptide.  (+info)

Intestinal reperfusion injury is mediated by IgM and complement. (22/12862)

Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is dependent on complement. This study examines the role of the alternative and classic pathways of complement and IgM in a murine model of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Wild-type animals, mice deficient in complement factor 4 (C4), C3, or Ig, or wild-type mice treated with soluble complement receptor 1 were subjected to 40 min of jejunal ischemia and 3 h of reperfusion. Compared with wild types, knockout and treated mice had significantly reduced intestinal injury, indicated by lowered permeability to radiolabeled albumin. When animals deficient in Ig were reconstituted with IgM, the degree of injury was restored to wild-type levels. Immunohistological staining of intestine for C3 and IgM showed colocalization in the mucosa of wild-type controls and minimal staining for both in the intestine of Ig-deficient and C4-deficient mice. We conclude that intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is dependent on the classic complement pathway and IgM.  (+info)

Hyaluronan synthase expression in bovine eyes. (23/12862)

PURPOSE: Hyaluronan (HA), a high-molecular-weight linear glycosaminoglycan, is a component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). It is expressed in eyes and plays important roles in many biologic processes, including cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Hyaluronan is produced by HA synthase (HAS), which has three isoforms: HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3. In this study, the HAS expression in the anterior segment of bovine eyes was investigated to determine the significance of HA in eyes. METHODS: To obtain bovine HAS probes, degenerate oligonucleotide primers, based on well-conserved amino acid sequences including the catalytic region of each HAS isoform, were used for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to amplify mRNA from bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCECs). Hyaluronan synthase-1 expression in the anterior segment of bovine eyes at the protein level was investigated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: All three HAS isoforms were expressed in BCECs at the mRNA level. Amplified cDNA fragments of HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 from BCECs can be aligned to human counterparts, showing similarities of 100%, 97.3%, and 100%, respectively, at the amino acid level. Hyaluronan synthase 1 was expressed at the protein level in corneal epithelium, keratocyte, corneal endothelium, conjunctival epithelium, ciliary epithelium, capillary endothelium, and trabecular meshwork. CONCLUSIONS: Hyaluronan synthase isoforms were expressed in the ocular anterior segment and are speculated to be involved in HA production in situ.  (+info)

Androgen influence on lacrimal gland apoptosis, necrosis, and lymphocytic infiltration. (24/12862)

PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that ovariectomy and hypophysectomy cause regression of the lacrimal gland and have implicated androgens as trophic hormones that support the gland. The purposes of this study were to test the hypothesis that glandular regression after ovariectomy is due to apoptosis, to identify the cell type or types that undergo apoptosis, to survey the time course of the apoptosis, and to determine whether ovariectomy-induced apoptosis could be prevented by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment. METHODS: Groups of sexually mature female New Zealand White rabbits were ovariectomized and killed at various time periods up to 9 days. Additional groups of ovariectomized rabbits were treated with 4 mg/kg DHT per day. At each time period, sham-operated rabbits were used as controls. Lacrimal glands were removed and processed for analysis of apoptosis as assessed by DNA fragmentation and for morphologic examination. DNA fragmentation was determined using the TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling assay and by agarose gel electrophoresis. Labeled nuclei were quantified by automated densitometry. Sections were also stained for RTLA (rabbit thymic lymphocyte antigen), rabbit CD18, and La antigen. Morphology was evaluated by both light and electron microscopy. RESULTS: The time course of apoptosis exhibited two phases, a rapid and transient phase and a second prolonged phase. A transient phase peaked at approximately 4 to 6 hours after ovariectomy. The values for degraded DNA as a percentage of total nuclear area were 4.29%+/-0.79% and 4.26%+/-0.54%, respectively. The values for sham-operated controls examined at the same time periods were 1.77%+/-0.08% and 0.82%+/-0.21%, respectively. The percentage of degraded DNA at 24 hours after ovariectomy was not different from controls examined at the same interval after sham operation. The percentage of degraded DNA 6 days after ovariectomy was significantly increased (8.5%+/-2.4%), compared with sham-operated animals at the same time period (0.68%+/-0.03%). DNA laddering was more pronounced after ovariectomy. Dihydrotestosterone treatment in ovariectomized rabbits suppressed the increase in DNA degradation. Morphologic examination of lacrimal gland sections indicated that ovariectomy caused apoptosis of interstitial cells rather than acinar or ductal epithelial cells. Tissue taken 4 hours and 6 days after ovariectomy showed nuclear chromatin condensation principally in plasma cells. Increased numbers of macrophages were also evident. Significant levels of cell degeneration and cell debris, characteristic of necrosis, were observed in acinar regions 6 days after ovariectomy. Dihydrotestosterone prevented this necrosis. Increased numbers of RTLA+, CD18+, and La+ interstitial cells were also evident 6 days after ovariectomy. In addition, ovariectomy increased La expression in ductal cells. Dihydrotestosterone treatment prevented the increase in numbers of lymphoid cells and La expression. Dihydrotestosterone also promoted the appearance of mitotic figures in acinar cells and increased the sizes of acini by 43% (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Glandular atrophy observed after ovariectomy is likely to proceed by necrosis of acinar cells rather than apoptosis. This process begins with an apparent time lag after a rapid phase of interstitial cell apoptosis. These processes are accompanied by increased lymphocytic infiltration. These results suggest that a critical level of androgen is necessary to maintain lacrimal gland structure and function and that a decrease in available androgen below this level could trigger lacrimal gland apoptosis and necrosis, and an autoimmune response. Because apoptotic and necrotic cell fragments may be sources of autoantigens that can be processed and presented to initiate an autoimmune reaction, we surmise that cell death triggered by androgen withdrawal may trigger an autoimmune response such as that encountered in Sjogren's syndrome. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)  (+info)