Homogeneous pyruvate kinase isolated from yeast by two different methods is indistinguishable from pyruvate kinase in cell-free extract.
In this report, we have compared homogeneous yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) pyruvate kinase to enzyme from cell-free extracts in several different ways: 1) isoelectric focusing of cell-free extracts indicates one peak of pyruvate kinase activity whose isoelectric point is the same as that of the pure enzyme; 2) antibody prepared to the pure enzyme produces a single, fused precipitin line against enzyme in the cell-free extract and pure enzyme; 3) immunoelectrophoresis of cell-free extract produces one precipitin arc which has the same mobility as that of the pure enzyme; and 4) immunoprecipitation of the pure enzyme from cell-free extract with subsequent solubilization in 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate and electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels produces a single protein band attributable to pyruvate kinase which co-migrates with the purified enzyme. Within the limits of the sensitivity of the methods employed, we conclude that the homogeneous pyruvate kinase prepared from yeast lysed either by Manton-Gaulin homogenization (Aust, A., Yun, S.-L., and Suelter, C. (1975) Methods Enzymol. 42, 176-182) or by toluolysis (Yun, S.-L., Aust, A.E., and Suelter, C.H. (1977) J. Biol. Chem. 251, 124-128) is identical with pyruvate kinase in cell-free extract. (+info)
Enzymatic and immunological characterization of the Mycobacterium fortuitum complex.
The arylsulfatase isozymes of Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. peregrinum, M. chelonei subsp. chelonei, and M. chelonei subsp. abscessus were examined to determine the isozymal and immunological relationship among the members of the M. fortuitum complex. Cell extracts were subjected to electrophoresis on agarose and polyacrylamide gel, and arylsulfatase activity was localized using beta-naphthyl sulfate as substrate. Unique zymograms were produced for M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, and M. chelonei which were characteristic for each species. The immunological relationship among the sulfatases was assayed by using immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis followed by sulfatase staining for the enzyme. One of the isozymes of M. fortuitum and M. peregrinum cross-reacted, showing immunological identity. Antisera to sulfatases of M. fortuitum and M. peregrinum did not react with sulfatases of M. chelonei. The characterization of sulfatase isozymes in extracts of organisms in the M. fortuitum complex suggests the division of the M. fortuitum complex into two species, M. fortuitum and M. chelonei, with subspecies designations. (+info)
The phenoloxidases of the ascomycete Podospora anserina. Structural differences between laccases of high and low molecular weight.
In order to investigate the extent of the relationship between the three copper-containing glycoproteins, laccases I, II and III (Mr70000, 80000 and 390000 respectively) of Podospora anserina, the following experiments were carried out on laccases II and III: (a) determination of amino acid composition; (b) determination of N-terminal and C-terminal amino acid; (c) determination of sugar composition; (d) dissociation studies on native and denatured laccases and also after removal of copper from the enzymes; (e) digestion of the carbohydrate moieties with the aid of glycosylhydrolases. A comparison between the results of these experiments and data previously obtained with laccase I allows the following conclusions to be drawn. 1. Laccases II and III are not identical. 2. Neither of these low molecular weight laccases are as complete molecules subunits of the oligomeric laccase I. 3. The possibility of partial identity of amino acid sequences of laccases I and III can not be excluded. 4. Laccase II possibly consists of subunits of Mr37000 whereas laccase III does not. 5. Digestion of 50% of the carbohydrate content leads to complete loss of serological specificity (serological reaction and cross reaction). This finding is discussed with regard to the possible role of the carbohydrate moiety as antigenic determinants and thus as the reason for the immunological relationship. As a consequence, at least three independent structural genes for laccases must be assumed. (+info)
Inhibition of human seminal fluid DNA polymerase by an IgG fraction of seminal plasma from vasectomized men.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was isolated from ejaculates of intact and vasectomized men by precipitation with ammonium sulphate and DEAE-cellulose ionexchange chromatography. Velocity centrifugation revealed that all of the IgG from intact males was 7S protein while less than 40% of the seminal IgG of vasectomized men cosedimented with the 7S marker; the remaining, immunologically unidentifiable, protein was considerably smaller and heterogeneous in size. Only the 7S IgG from the post-vasectomy ejaculates inhibited the activity of a DNA polymerase from the seminal fluid of an intact male. These results suggest that formation of antibody reactive with the seminal fluid DNA polymerase is one manifestation of a vasectomy-associated autoimmune response in man. (+info)
Complement activity in middle ear effusions.
Evidence for complement utilization in middle ear fluids (MEF) from patients with otitis media with effusion was sought. It was found that cleavage products of C3, C4 and Factor B could be demonstrated immunochemically in MEF, and that native C3 was present in much lower concentrations than other proteins, relative to their serum concentrations. Haemolytic assays for C1-C5 showed that early complement components are inactivated in MEF. Potential mechanisms for complement utilization in MEF are discussed. (+info)
Enterobacterial common antigen: isolation from Shigella sonnei, purification and immunochemical characterization.
In the studies presented the effective procedure of isolation and purification of enterobacterial common antigen from Shigella sonnei has been elaborated. The method is based on sonification of bacterial suspension in the presence of lysozyme and EDTA and subsequent extraction of the pellet with boiling water. The crude extract of common antigen was purified by fractionation with ethanol and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. The comparison of several extraction procedures of enterobacterial common antigen from Shigella sonnei proved that the method described above is most effective. The purified enterobacterial common antigen preparation obtained preserved full biological activity: antigenicity (precipitation and activity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), immunogenicity in rabbits, ability to coat erythrocytes (passive hemagglutination) and inhibitory activity in passive hemagglutination. The pure enterobacterial common antigen was identified to 90% as a polymer of N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (2:1, molar ratio), O-acetylated and containing 3.2% fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:1, not oleic). It contains 5.3% nitrogen, less than 4% protein, less than 0.5% phosphorus and less than 1.6% neutral sugar; glycerol and RNA were not found in the preparation. (+info)
Immune response in the garter snake (Thamnophis ordinoides).
Garter snakes (Thamnophis ordinoides) were immunized with hen egg albumin, human gamma-globulin and Keyhole limpet haemocyanin in Freund's adjuvant. Antibody was consistently detected by radioimmunoelectrophoresis and in three different gamma- and beta-globulin precipitin lines called IgM (approximately or equal to 20S), Ig-1 (approximately or equal to 9S) and Ig-2 (approximately or equal to 8-5S). Early antibody (day 31 after immunization) was frequently Ig-M whereas Ig-2 and especially Ig-1 were detectable for the longest duration (992 days). After immunization with antigen in Freund's adjuvant, Ig-1 serum concentration showed the greatest increase, from almost undetectable levels to the most prominent immunoglobulin in immune serum. (+info)
Plant microbody proteins. Purification and glycoprotein nature of glyoxysomal isocitrate lyase from cucumber cotyledons.
1. Isocitrate lyase from cotyledons of cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus) has been purified 100-fold. Two methods of preparing the soluble glyoxylate cycle enzyme are described: an elaborated method which used crude extracts of cucumber cotyledons, and another procedure which started with purified glyoxysomes from 4-day-old cotyledons and included a separation of glyoxysomal matrix enzymes by zonal centrifugation. The product behaved as a single species when tested by (a) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of dodecyl sulfate, (b) zonal centrifugation, and (c) double immunodiffusion against rabbit antibody to isocitrate lyase. 2. Isocitrate lyase of cucumber glyoxysomes exhibited a molecular weight of 255,000 and was composed of four apparently identical subunits of Mr 64,000. An isoelectric point of 5.9 was determined. 3. It was shown that isocitrate lyase is a glycoprotein, (a) by Schiff stain on polyacrylamide gels, (b) by periodate oxidation of the enzyme, subsequent reduction with NaB[3H]4 and electrophoretic analysis of the labelled glycoprotein, and (c) by incorporation of [3H]glucosamine in vivo into a protein which could be precipitated with antibodies to isocitrate lyase and revealed a 64,000-Mr band upon electrophoresis. (+info)