Suppression of Moloney sarcoma virus immunity following sensitization with attenuated virus.
Murine sarcoma virus (Moloney strain) (MSV-M)-induced tumors are unusual in that they regularly appear less than 2 weeks after virus inoculation, progress for 1 to 2 weeks, and are rejected by normal adult BALB/c mice. Rejectio leaves the animals immune to tumor induction. In the present study, presensitization of normal adult BALB/c mice with attenuated MSV-M resulted in an altered pattern of tumor immunity. Injection of active MSV-M into the presensitized animals resulted in tumor induction and rejection similar to that observed in normal animals, but rejection failed to produce protection against the secondary inoculation with MSV-M. After the second inoculation with active MSV-M, tumors appeared and progressed but ultimately were rejected. Over 80% of the mice died, 25% after the primary challenge and the remainder after the secondary challenge. At death, all mice had histological evidence of leukemia which was the probable cause of death. The animals that died following the secondary challenge also had evidence of disseminated MSV-M. Solid tumor nodules were found in skeletal muscle distant from the original site of inoculation, and active MSV-M was isolated from spleen and lungs. The possibility that the results were produced by specific suppression of MSV-Moloney leukemia virus immunity is discussed. (+info)
Antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express Fas ligand (FasL).
Fas ligand is a type II transmembrane protein which can induce apoptosis in Fas-expressing cells. Recent reports indicate that expression of FasL in transplanted cells may cause graft rejection and, on the other hand, tumor cells may lose their tumorigenicity when they are engineered to express FasL. These effects could be related to recruitment of neutrophils by FasL with activation of their cytotoxic machinery. In this study we investigated the antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express FasL. Fibroblasts engineered to express FasL (PA317/FasL) did not exert toxic effects on transformed liver cell line (BNL) or colon cancer cell line (CT26) in vitro, but they could abrogate their tumorigenicity in vivo. Histological examination of the site of implantation of BNL cells mixed with PA317/FasL revealed massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mononuclear cells. A specific immune protective effect was observed in animals primed with a mixture of BNL or CT26 and PA317/FasL cells. Rechallenge with tumor cells 14 or 100 days after priming resulted in protection of 100 or 50% of animals, respectively. This protective effect was due to CD8+ cells since depletion of CD8+ led to tumor formation. In addition, treatment of pre-established BNL tumors with a subcutaneous injection of BNL and PA317/FasL cell mixture at a distant site caused significant inhibition of tumor growth. These data demonstrate that allogenic cells engineered with FasL are able to abolish tumor growth and induce specific protective immunity when they are mixed with neoplastic cells. (+info)
Using monoclonal antibodies to prevent mucosal transmission of epidemic infectious diseases.
Passive immunization with antibodies has been shown to prevent a wide variety of diseases. Recent advances in monoclonal antibody technology are enabling the development of new methods for passive immunization of mucosal surfaces. Human monoclonal antibodies, produced rapidly, inexpensively, and in large quantities, may help prevent respiratory, diarrheal, and sexually transmitted diseases on a public health scale. (+info)
Fungal prophylaxis by reduction of fungal colonization by oral administration of bovine anti-Candida antibodies in bone marrow transplant recipients.
Candida overgrowth and invasion constitute a serious threat with a high mortality in BMT recipients. Currently available topical antifungal prophylaxis is largely ineffective, and as resistance to existing, absorbable drugs for systemic use is rapidly developing, new forms of therapy are needed. We investigated the effect of oral treatment of BMT recipients with a bovine immunoglobulin product derived from animals immunized against several Candida species. The natural Candida colonization was first followed in 19 patients to establish the colonization pattern. Half of the patients were found to be colonized prior to transplantation and altogether 72% were colonized at some point during follow-up. Those with a high pre-transplant concentration of Candida in saliva (>100 CFU/ml) remained colonized throughout the BMT treatment period. The therapeutic effect was monitored in two other patient groups. The first group consisted of nine patients, where, due to a low number of primary colonized patients, response in colonized patients was suggestive of a therapeutic effect. In the second group, 10 patients with a high level of colonization (>100 CFU/ml) were given 10 g daily of the product in three divided doses. The results suggest a treatment-related reduction in Candida colonization in a majority (7/10) of patients and one patient became completely negative. As no adverse effects were noted, our findings encourage additional studies in immunocompromised, transplant patients. (+info)
Immunological characterization of a protective antigen of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae: identification of the region responsible for protective immunity.
The gene encoding a protective protein antigen of the gram-positive bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, an important veterinary pathogen responsible for erysipelas in swine and a variety of diseases in animals, was cloned and sequenced. The gene encodes a polypeptide of 597 amino acids plus a putative signal sequence of 29 amino acids, resulting in a mature protein with a molecular mass of 69,017 Da. Sequence analysis of the gene product revealed a C-terminal region composed of nine tandem repeats of 20 amino acids and a total sequence that is nearly identical to that of the 64-kDa cell surface protein (SpaA) of the bacterium. Because of this similarity, the protein was designated SpaA.1. In this study, we examined whether the SpaA.1 protein could induce protective antibodies and whether we could identify the region involved in protective immunity. Both the mature SpaA.1 protein and its C-terminal repeat region, but not the N-terminal segment, were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified as a histidine-tagged fusion recombinant protein. Rabbit antiserum raised against the mature SpaA.1 protein passively protected mice from lethal challenge with a virulent homologous strain, Fujisawa-SmR, suggesting that protection is mediated by humoral antibodies. To determine which domain of the SpaA.1 protein is responsible for the observed protection, mice were actively immunized with either the mature SpaA. 1 protein or the C-terminal repeat region and then challenged with Fujisawa-SmR. The result showed that mice immunized with the mature SpaA.1 protein, but not the C-terminal repeat region, were protected, suggesting that the protection-eliciting epitope(s) is located within the N-terminal two-thirds of the SpaA.1 molecule. This was confirmed by passive immunization experiments in which the protective activity of rabbit antiserum, raised against mature SpaA. 1 protein, was not abolished by absorption with the purified recombinant C-terminal repeat region. In addition, antibodies specific for the C-terminal repeat region were unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. These results show that the N-terminal two-thirds of the SpaA.1 molecule may constitute a good vaccine candidate against erysipelas. (+info)
Oral transmission of primate lentiviruses.
Oral transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is well documented in children who become infected postnatally through breast milk. In contrast, epidemiologic surveys have yielded conflicting data regarding oral HIV-1 transmission among adults, even though case reports have described seroconversion and the development of AIDS in adults whose only risk was oral-genital contact. To study oral virus transmission in primate models, we exposed rhesus macaques of various ages to cell-free simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), including uncloned and molecularly cloned viruses. In neonates, viremia and AIDS developed after nontraumatic oral exposure to several SIV strains. Furthermore, chimeric simian human immunodeficiency viruses containing the HIV-1 envelope can also cross intact upper gastrointestinal mucosal surfaces in neonates. In adult macaques, infection and AIDS have resulted from well-controlled, nontraumatic, experimental oral exposure to different strains of SIV. These findings have implications for the risks of HIV-1 transmission during oral-genital contact. (+info)
Role of nonagglutinating antibody in the protracted immunity of vaccinated mice to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.
Effective immunization against infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is difficult to evaluate because agglutinin levels decline rapidly. Because fractionation of hyperimmune sera often yields more specific antibody than can be accounted for by direct agglutination tests, an immunoglobulin-specific assay based on antiglobulin augmentation was used to characterize antibody responses of C3H/HeJ mice vaccinated with P. aeruginosa type 2 lipopolysaccharide. Nonagglutinating antibodies, initially detected at 2 weeks post-primary vaccination, were predominantly immunoglobulin G after 5 weeks, and they remained elevated at levels usually 32-fold higher than the direct titer throughout the 4-month study period. The sequential production of immunoglobulin M, then immunoglobulin G, followed that found in orthodox immunological responses. Sera that contained nonagglutinating antibodies but not direct agglutinins (14 to 16 weeks) enhanced phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa type 2 by macrophages from unimmunized mice and passively immunized mice against lethal challenge doses; bactericidal activity of these sera was not demonstrated in the presence or absence of complement. When challenged with 1, 10, and 100 50% lethal doses at 16 weeks, survival rates of actively immunized mice were significantly higher than those of unvaccinated mice (P < 0.001). Thus, at a time when no direct agglutinins were detectable, the augmented system detected nonagglutinating antibodies that could confer protracted resistance in vaccinated mice to pseudomonas infection. (+info)
Effects of anti-IgE in asthmatic subjects.
A humanized murine monoclonal antibody directed to the Fc epsilon R1-binding domain of human IgE (rhuMAb-E25) has been shown to inhibit the binding of IgE to mast cells without provoking mast cell activation. To examine the effects of neutralizing IgE on allergic airway responses, we assessed the effects of 9 wk of treatment with rhuMAb-E25 in a parallel group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 19 allergic asthmatic subjects. We found that treatment with rhuMAb-E25 reduced the serum IgE, increased the dose of allergen needed to provoke an early asthmatic response, reduced the mean maximal fall in FEV1 during the early response (30 +/- 10% at baseline to 18.8 +/- 8%, versus 33 +/- 8% at baseline to 34 +/- 4% after placebo; p = 0.01), and reduced the mean maximal fall in FEV1 during the late response (24 +/- 20% at baseline to 9 +/- 10% versus 20 +/- 17% at baseline to 18 +/- 17% after placebo; p = 0.047). We conclude that an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, which inhibits binding of IgE to its receptor, suppresses the early- and late-phase responses to inhaled allergen in allergic asthmatic subjects. Targeting IgE with rhuMAb-E25 might be a useful treatment for allergic asthma. (+info)