(1/1894) Pathogenicity island 2 mutants of Salmonella typhimurium are efficient carriers for heterologous antigens and enable modulation of immune responses.
The potential use as vaccine delivery system of Salmonella typhimurium strains harboring defined mutations in the sseC (HH104) and sseD (MvP101) genes, which encode putative effector proteins of the type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, was evaluated and compared with that of the well-characterized aroA mutant strain SL7207 by using beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) as a model antigen. When orally administered to immune-competent or gamma interferon-deficient (IFN-gamma-/-) BALB/c mice, both mutants were found to be highly attenuated (50% lethal dose, >10(9) bacteria). Both strains were also able to efficiently colonize and persist in Peyer's patches. Immunization with HH104 and MvP101 triggered beta-Gal-specific serum and mucosal antibody responses equivalent to or stronger than those observed in SL7207-immunized mice. Although immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) serum antibodies were dominant in all groups, IgG1 was also significantly increased in mice vaccinated with MvP101 and SL7207. Comparable beta-Gal-specific IgA and IgG antibodies were detected in intestinal lavages from mice immunized with the different strains. Antigen-specific CD4(+) T-helper cells were generated after vaccination with all vaccine prototypes; however, responses were significantly more efficient when HH104 and MvP101 were used (P < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma were produced by restimulated spleen cells from mice immunized with HH104 than from those vaccinated with the MvP101 or SL7207 derivatives (P = 0.05). Interestingly, the three strains induced major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells against beta-Gal; however, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses were significantly stronger after immunization with HH104 (P < 0.05). These novel S. typhimurium attenuated strains constitute promising delivery systems for vaccine antigens. The qualitative differences observed in the obtained responses with different carriers may be useful for those applications in which a targeted immunomodulation is required. (+info)
(2/1894) Zonula occludens toxin is a powerful mucosal adjuvant for intranasally delivered antigens.
Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is produced by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae and has the ability to reversibly alter intestinal epithelial tight junctions, allowing the passage of macromolecules through the mucosal barrier. In the present study, we investigated whether Zot could be exploited to deliver soluble antigens through the nasal mucosa for the induction of antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Intranasal immunization of mice with ovalbumin (Ova) and recombinant Zot, either fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP-Zot) or with a hexahistidine tag (His-Zot), induced anti-Ova serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers that were approximately 40-fold higher than those induced by immunization with antigen alone. Interestingly, Zot also stimulated high anti-Ova IgA titers in serum, as well as in vaginal and intestinal secretions. A comparison with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) revealed that the adjuvant activity of Zot was only sevenfold lower than that of LT. Moreover, Zot and LT induced similar patterns of Ova-specific IgG subclasses. The subtypes IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b were all stimulated, with a predominance of IgG1 and IgG2b. In conclusion, our results highlight Zot as a novel potent mucosal adjuvant of microbial origin. (+info)
(3/1894) Targeted disruption of SMAD3 results in impaired mucosal immunity and diminished T cell responsiveness to TGF-beta.
SMAD3 is one of the intracellular mediators that transduces signals from transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and activin receptors. We show that SMAD3 mutant mice generated by gene targeting die between 1 and 8 months due to a primary defect in immune function. Symptomatic mice exhibit thymic involution, enlarged lymph nodes, and formation of bacterial abscesses adjacent to mucosal surfaces. Mutant T cells exhibit an activated phenotype in vivo, and are not inhibited by TGF-beta1 in vitro. Mutant neutrophils are also impaired in their chemotactic response toward TGF-beta. Chronic intestinal inflammation is infrequently associated with colonic adenocarcinoma in mice older than 6 months of age. These data suggest that SMAD3 has an important role in TGF-beta-mediated regulation of T cell activation and mucosal immunity, and that the loss of these functions is responsible for chronic infection and the lethality of Smad3-null mice. (+info)
(4/1894) Protective immune response against Streptococcus pyogenes in mice after intranasal vaccination with the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI.
Despite the significant impact on human health of Streptococcus pyogenes, an efficacious vaccine has not yet been developed. Here, the potential as a vaccine candidate of a major streptococcal adhesin, the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI, was evaluated. Intranasal immunization of mice with either SfbI alone or coupled to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) triggered efficient SfbI-specific humoral (mainly IgG) and lung mucosal (14% of total IgA) responses. CTB-immunized control mice were not protected against challenge with S. pyogenes (90%-100% lethality), whereas SfbI-vaccinated animals showed 80% and 90% protection against homologous and heterologous challenge, respectively. Multiple areas of consolidation with diffused cellular infiltrates (macrophages and neutrophils) were observed in lungs from control mice; the histologic structure was preserved in SfbI-vaccinated animals, which occasionally presented focal infiltrates confined to the perivascular, peribronchial, and subpleural areas. These results suggest that SfbI is a promising candidate for inclusion in acellular vaccines against S. pyogenes. (+info)
(5/1894) IgA production in MHC class II-deficient mice is primarily a function of B-1a cells.
Mice deficient in MHC class II expression (C2d mice) do not make antibody to protein antigens administered systemically, but their ability to produce IgA antibody to antigen administered at mucosal sites has not been described. We investigated IgA production by C2d mice and their IgA antibody response to antigen given orally. Young C2d mice had normal amounts of serum IgA, intestinal-secreted IgA and normal numbers of intestinal IgA plasma cells, compared to control C57BL/6 mice. IgA production by C2d mice increased with age. Following oral immunization with cholera toxin, C57BL/6 mice responded with IgA and IgG antibody, and had increased numbers of IgA plasma cells, but C2d mice gave no response. The Peyer's patch and mesenteric lymph node tissues of C2d mice contained very few CD4-expressing T cells. Thus, C2d mice have no typical mucosal CD4 Th cells and cannot respond to a strong oral immunogen, yet they still produced and secreted IgA. We hypothesized that B-1 lymphocytes could provide a source of IgA independent of antigen-specific T cell help. Young C2d mice had normal numbers of peritoneal B-1a cells and their frequency increased with age. To test the role of these B-1a cells, we bred C2d mice to obtain mice that had no MHC class II expression and expressed the Xid gene that confers deficiency in B-1a cells. These double-deficient mice had 10-fold less serum and secreted IgA than all other F2 littermates. We conclude that B-1a cells are essential for the majority of IgA production in C2d mice. Thus, the C2d mouse may provide a useful tool for analysis of the role of intestinal IgA provided by B-1a cells. (+info)
(6/1894) Mucosal immunity to influenza without IgA: an IgA knockout mouse model.
IgA knockout mice (IgA-/-) were generated by gene targeting and were used to determine the role of IgA in protection against mucosal infection by influenza and the value of immunization for preferential induction of secretory IgA. Aerosol challenge of naive IgA-/- mice and their wild-type IgA+/+ littermates with sublethal and lethal doses of influenza virus resulted in similar levels of pulmonary virus infection and mortality. Intranasal and i.p. immunization with influenza vaccine plus cholera toxin/cholera toxin B induced significant mucosal and serum influenza hemagglutinin-specific IgA Abs in IgA+/+ (but not IgA-/-) mice as well as IgG and IgM Abs in both IgA-/- and IgA+/+ mice; both exhibited similar levels of pulmonary and nasal virus replication and mortality following a lethal influenza virus challenge. Monoclonal anti-hemagglutinin IgG1, IgG2a, IgM, and polymeric IgA Abs were equally effective in preventing influenza virus infection in IgA-/- mice. These results indicate that IgA is not required for prevention of influenza virus infection and disease. Indeed, while mucosal immunization for selective induction of IgA against influenza may constitute a useful approach for control of influenza and other respiratory viral infections, strategies that stimulate other Igs in addition may be more desirable. (+info)
(7/1894) Protection of macaques against intrarectal infection by a combination immunization regimen with recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmne gp160 vaccines.
We previously reported that immunization with recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmne envelope (gp160) vaccines protected macaques against intravenous challenge by the cloned homologous virus E11S but that this protection was only partially effective against the uncloned virus, SIVmne. In the present study, we examine the protective efficacy of this immunization regimen against infection by a mucosal route. We found that the same gp160-based vaccines were highly effective against intrarectal infection not only with the E11S clone but also with the uncloned SIVmne. Protection against mucosal infection is therefore achievable by parenteral immunization with recombinant envelope vaccines. Protection appears to correlate with high levels of SIV-specific antibodies and, in animals protected against the uncloned virus, the presence of serum-neutralizing activities. To understand the basis for the differential efficacies against the uncloned virus by the intravenous versus the intrarectal routes, we examined viral sequences recovered from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of animals early after infection by both routes. We previously showed that the majority (85%) of the uncloned SIVmne challenge stock contained V1 sequences homologous to the molecular clone from which the vaccines were made (E11S type), with the remainder (15%) containing multiple conserved changes (the variant types). In contrast to intravenously infected animals, from which either E11S-type or the variant type V1 sequences could be recovered in significant proportions, animals infected intrarectally had predominantly E11S-type sequences. Preferential transmission or amplification of the E11S-type viruses may therefore account in part for the enhanced efficacy of the recombinant gp160 vaccines against the uncloned virus challenge by the intrarectal route compared with the intravenous route. (+info)
(8/1894) Relationship between mucosal levels of Helicobacter pylori-specific IgA, interleukin-8 and gastric inflammation.
Mucosal IgA is important in local immune defence. Helicobacter pylori induces a specific IgA response in antral mucosa, but its immunopathology is unknown. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been suggested to be important in H. pylori-induced inflammation. Current information on the relationship between H. pylori-induced IgA and mucosal inflammation is limited. To investigate possible associations between mucosal-specific IgA, the toxinogenicity of H. pylori, mucosal levels of IL-8 and gastric inflammation, 52 endoscoped patients were studied. These comprised 28 patients with peptic ulcer and 24 with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Of these patients, 38 had H. pylori infection: 28 with peptic ulcer and 10 with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Antral biopsies were taken for histology, H. pylori culture and measurement of mucosal levels of IL-8 (pg/mg) and specific IgA (A450x1000) by ELISA. Mucosal H. pylori IgA was detectable in 35 out of 38 patients with H. pylori infection, with a median (interquartile) level of 220 (147, 531) units. There was no significant difference in mucosal levels of the IgA antibodies between patients infected with cytotoxin-positive or cagA-positive strains of H. pylori and those with toxin-negative or cagA-negative strains. The IgA levels in those patients with severe neutrophil infiltration were lower than in those with mild or moderate infiltration (P<0.05). There was a weak inverse correlation between antral mucosal IgA and IL-8 in infected patients (r=-0.36; P=0.04). H. pylori infection induced a significant local mucosal IgA response in most infected patients. The level of IgA antibodies does not appear to be correlated with the toxinogenicity of H. pylori. However, patients with severe active inflammation appear to have decreased levels of IgA. An inverse correlation between mucosal IL-8 and IgA may suggest that IL-8-induced inflammation compromises the mucosal IgA defence and renders the mucosa susceptible to further damage. (+info)