(1/2857) Effects of soybean oil emulsion and eicosapentaenoic acid on stress response and immune function after a severely stressful operation.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of soybean oil emulsion and oral or enteral administration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on stress response, cytokine production, protein metabolism, and immune function after surgery for esophageal cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: It has been reported that safflower oil, rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA), affects the survival rate of septic animals and decreases the immune function. It has also been reported that the administration of fish oil, in contrast, reduces these stress responses and stress-induced immunosuppression. In humans, the effects of soybean oil emulsion and the administration of EPA on stress response and immune function after surgery have not been established. METHODS: Patients who underwent esophagectomy with thoracotomy were divided into three groups. Seven patients were fed by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with soybean oil emulsion, which accounted for 20% of total calories. Seven patients were given oral or enteral administration of 1.8 g/day EPA, in addition to TPN with soybean oil emulsion. Nine patients served as the control group; these patients received fat-free TPN. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein, concanavalin A (con A)- or phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer cell activity, and stress hormones were measured. RESULTS: The postoperative level of serum IL-6 was significantly higher in the group receiving soybean oil emulsion than in the fat-free group. Oral or enteral supplementation of EPA with soybean oil emulsion significantly reduced the level of serum IL-6 compared with the patients receiving soybean oil emulsion. Con A- or PHA-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation decreased significantly on postoperative day 7 in all groups of patients. The supplementation of EPA with soybean oil emulsion significantly improved the lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer cell activity on postoperative day 21 compared with the group receiving soybean oil emulsion. CONCLUSIONS: Soybean oil emulsion amplifies, and the supplementation of EPA reduces, the stress response and stress-induced immunosuppression. (+info)
(2/2857) Soluble HLA class I, HLA class II, and Fas ligand in blood components: a possible key to explain the immunomodulatory effects of allogeneic blood transfusions.
The immunomodulatory effect of allogeneic blood transfusions (ABT) has been known for many years. However, a complete understanding of the effects of ABT on the recipient's immune system has remained elusive. Soluble HLA class I (sHLA-I), HLA class II (sHLA-II), and Fas ligand (sFasL) molecules may play immunoregulatory roles. We determined by double-determinant immunoenzymatic assay (DDIA) sHLA-I, sHLA-II, and sFasL concentrations in different blood components. sHLA-I and sFasL levels in red blood cells (RBCs) stored for up to 30 days and in random-donor platelets are significantly (P <.001) higher than in other blood components and their amount is proportionate to the number of residual donor leukocytes and to the length of storage. Blood components with high sHLA-I and sFasL levels play immunoregulatory roles in vitro as in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte responses (MLR) and antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) activity, and induce apoptosis in Fas-positive cells. These data suggest that soluble molecules in blood components are functional. If these results are paralleled in vivo, they should be taken into account in transfusion practice. Blood components that can cause immunosuppression should be chosen to induce transplantation tolerance, whereas blood components that lack immunosuppressive effects should be preferred to reduce the risk of postoperative complications and cancer recurrence. (+info)
(3/2857) Dietary effect of EPA-rich and DHA-rich fish oils on the immune function of Sprague-Dawley rats.
The dietary effect of fish oils (FOs) rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the immune function of Sprague-Dawley rats was compared with that of safflower oil. After 3 weeks of feeding at the 10% level of a dietary fat, the IgG and IgM production by splenocytes and IgG production by mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes were significantly higher in the FO-fed rats, while no significant difference was found in IgA or IgE productivity by both the spleen and MLN lymphocytes. In the FO-fed rats, peritoneal exudate cells released a lower amount of LTB4, reflecting their lower arachidonic acid level, and a higher amount of LTB5, reflecting their higher EPA level in phospholipids. On these EPA-rich FO exerted a stronger effect than DHA-rich FO immune functions. (+info)
(4/2857) Genetically corrected autologous stem cells engraft, but host immune responses limit their utility in canine alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency.
Canine alpha-L-iduronidase (alpha-ID) deficiency, a model of the human storage disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), is an ideal system in which to evaluate the clinical benefit of genetically corrected hematopoietic stem cells. We performed adoptive transfer of genetically corrected autologous hematopoietic cells in dogs with alpha-ID deficiency. Large volume marrow collections were performed on five alpha-ID-deficient dogs. Marrow mononuclear cells in long-term marrow cultures (LTMCs) were exposed on three occasions during 3 weeks of culture to retroviral vectors bearing the normal canine alpha-ID cDNA. Transduced LTMC cells from deficient dogs expressed enzymatically active alpha-ID at 10 to 200 times the levels seen in normal dogs. An average of 32% of LTMC-derived clonogenic hematopoietic cells were provirus positive by polymerase chain reaction and about half of these expressed alpha-ID. Approximately 10(7) autologous gene-modified LTMC cells/kg were infused into nonmyeloablated recipients. Proviral DNA was detected in up to 10% of individual marrow-derived hematopoietic colonies and in 0.01% to 1% of blood and marrow leukocytes at up to 2 to 3 years postinfusion. Despite good evidence for engraftment of provirally marked cells, neither alpha-ID enzyme nor alpha-ID transcripts were detected in any dog. We evaluated immune responses against alpha-ID and transduced cells. Humoral responses to alpha-ID and serum components of the culture media (fetal bovine and horse sera and bovine serum albumin) were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cellular immune responses to autologous alpha-ID but not neo(r) transduced cells were demonstrated by lymphocyte proliferation assays. To abrogate potential immune phenomena, four affected dogs received posttransplant cyclosporine A. Whereas immune responses were dampened in these dogs, alpha-ID activity remained undetectable. In none of the dogs engrafted with genetically corrected cells was there evidence for clinical improvement. Our data suggest that, whereas the alpha-ID cDNA may be transferred and maintained in approximately 5% of hematopoietic progenitors, the potential of this approach appears limited by the levels of provirally derived enzyme that are expressed in vivo and by the host's response to cultured and transduced hematopoietic cells expressing foreign proteins. (+info)
(5/2857) Deficiency of the hematopoietic cell-specific Rho family GTPase Rac2 is characterized by abnormalities in neutrophil function and host defense.
In mammals, the Rho family GTPase Rac2 is restricted in expression to hematopoietic cells, where it is coexpressed with Rac1. Rac2-deficient mice were created to define the physiological requirement for two near-identical Rac proteins in hematopoietic cells. rac2-/- neutrophils displayed significant defects in chemotaxis, in shear-dependent L-selectin-mediated capture on the endothelial substrate Glycam-1, and in both F-actin generation and p38 and, unexpectedly, p42/p44 MAP kinase activation induced by chemoattractants. Superoxide production by rac2-/- bone marrow neutrophils was significantly reduced compared to wild type, but it was normal in activated peritoneal exudate neutrophils. These defects were reflected in vivo by baseline neutrophilia, reduced inflammatory peritoneal exudate formation, and increased mortality when challenged with Aspergillus fumigatus. Rac2 is an essential regulator of multiple specialized neutrophil functions. (+info)
(6/2857) Role of innate and adaptive immunity in the outcome of primary infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, as analyzed in genetically modified mice.
Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of acute respiratory disease in man and is also associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disorder. Herein, we have compared bacterial load and immune parameters of C. pneumoniae-infected mice genomically lacking T cell coreceptors, cytokine receptors, or cytotoxic effector molecules. A protective role for CD8+ cells is shown by the enhanced severity of infection of CD8-/- or TAP-1-/-/beta2-microglobulin -/- mice. CD8+ cells hindered a parasite growth-promoting role of CD4+ T cells, as indicated by the higher sensitivity to early infection of CD8-/- than CD4-/-/CD8-/- mice, which was further confirmed in experiments in which SCID mice were reconstituted with either CD4+ or CD4+ plus CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, CD4+ T cells played a dual role, detrimental early (14 and 24 days) after infection but protective at later time points (60 days after infection). The CD8+ T cell protection was perforin independent. The early deleterious role of CD4+ in the absence of CD8+ T cells was associated with enhanced IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA levels and delayed IFN-gamma mRNA accumulation in lungs. In line with this, IFN-gammaR-/- (but not TNFRp55 -/-) mice showed dramatically increased susceptibility to C. pneumoniae, linked to reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA accumulation, but not to diminished levels of specific Abs. The increased susceptibility of iNOS-/- mice indicates a protective role for iNOS activity during infection with C. pneumoniae. The higher sensitivity of IFN-gammaR-/- mice to C. pneumoniae compared with that of SCID or recombination-activating gene-1-/- mice suggested a relevant protective role of IFN-gamma-dependent innate mechanisms of protection. (+info)
(7/2857) Chimerism and xenotransplantation. New concepts.
In both transplant and infectious circumstances, the immune response is governed by migration and localization of the antigen. If the antigenic epitopes of transgenic xenografts are sufficiently altered to avoid evoking the destructive force of innate immunity, the mechanisms of engraftment should be the same as those that permit the chimerism-dependent immunologic confrontation and resolution that is the basis of allograft acceptance. In addition to "humanizing" the epitopes, one of the unanswered questions is whether the species restriction of complement described in 1994 by Valdivia and colleagues also necessitates the introduction of human complement regulatory genes in animal donors. Because the liver is the principal or sole source of most complement components, the complement quickly is transformed to that of the donor after hepatic transplantation. Thus, the need for complementary regulatory transgenes may vary according to the kind of xenograft used. Much evidence shows that physiologically important peptides produced by xenografts (e.g., insulin, clotting factors, and enzymes) are incorporated into the metabolic machinery of the recipient body. To the extent that this is not true, xenotransplantation could result in the production of diseases that are analogous to inborn errors of metabolism. In the climate of pessimism that followed the failures of baboon to human liver xenotransplantation in 1992-1993, it seemed inconceivable that the use of even more discordant donors, such as the pig, could ever be seriously entertained; however, this preceded insight into the xenogeneic and allogeneic barriers that has brought transplantation infectious immunity to common ground. With this new insight and the increasing ease of producing transgenic donors, the goal of clinical xenotransplantation may not be so distant. (+info)
(8/2857) Good genes, oxidative stress and condition-dependent sexual signals.
The immune and the detoxication systems of animals are characterized by allelic polymorphisms, which underlie individual differences in ability to combat assaults from pathogens and toxic compounds. Previous studies have shown that females may improve offspring survival by selecting mates on the basis of sexual ornaments and signals that honestly reveal health. In many cases the expression of these ornaments appears to be particularly sensitive to oxidative stress. Activated immune and detoxication systems often generate oxidative stress by an extensive production of reactive metabolites and free radicals. Given that tolerance or resistance to toxic compounds and pathogens can be inherited, female choice should promote the evolution of male ornaments that reliably reveal the status of the bearers' level of oxidative stress. Hence, oxidative stress may be one important agent linking the expression of sexual ornaments to genetic variation in fitness-related traits, thus promoting the evolution of female mate choice and male sexual ornamentation, a controversial issue in evolutionary biology ever since Darwin. (+info)