Differentiation of small hyperechoic renal cell carcinoma from angiomyolipoma: computer-aided tissue echo quantification.
To assess the value of computer-aided tissue echo quantification in differentiating small hyperechoic renal cell carcinomas from angiomyolipomas, we studied ultrasonographic images of 15 renal cell carcinomas and 20 angiomyolipomas. After digitizing the images, we measured the absolute gray scale values of the renal cortex, central echo complex, and mass. The relative gray scale value (%) of the mass was calculated by setting the gray scale value of the cortex as 0% and the central echo complex as 100%. The relative gray scale value of renal cell carcinomas was in the range of 12 to 73% (mean, 28%), whereas that of angiomyolipomas was 30 to 204% (mean, 130%). The differentiation between small hyperechoic renal cell carcinomas and angiomyolipomas can be facilitated by computer-aided tissue echo quantification. (+info)
Inter- and intraobserver variation in the analysis of optic disc images: comparison of the Heidelberg retina tomograph and computer assisted planimetry.
AIMS: The development of imaging and measurement techniques has brought the prospect of greater objectivity in the measurement of optic disc features, and therefore better agreement between observers. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the variation between observers using two measurement devices. METHODS: Optic disc photographs and images from the Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT) of 30 eyes of 30 subjects were presented to six observers for analysis, and to one observer on five separate occasions. Agreement between observers was studied by comparing the analysis of each observer with the median result of the other five, and expressed as the mean difference and standard deviation of differences between the observer and the median. Inter- and intraobserver variation was calculated as a coefficient of variation (mean SD/mean x 100). RESULTS: For planimetry, agreement between observers was dependent on observer experience, for the HRT it was independent. Agreement between observers (SD of differences as a percentage of the median) for optic disc area was 4.0% to 7.2% (planimetry) and 3.3% to 6.0% (HRT), for neuroretinal rim area it was 10.8% to 21.0% (planimetry) and 5.2% to 9.6% (HRT). The mean interobserver coefficient of variation for optic disc area was 8.1% (planimetry) and 4.4% (HRT), for neuroretinal rim area it was 16.3% (planimetry) and 8.1% (HRT), and (HRT only) for rim volume was 16.3%, and reference height 9.1%. HRT variability was greater for the software version 1.11 reference plane than for version 1.10. The intraobserver coefficient of variation for optic disc area was 1.5% (planimetry) and 2.4% (HRT), for neuroretinal rim area it was 4.0% (planimetry) and 4.5% (HRT). CONCLUSIONS: Variation between observers is greatly reduced by the HRT when compared with planimetry. However, levels of variation, which may be clinically significant, remain for variables that depend on the subjective drawing of the disc margin. (+info)
Effect of software manipulation (Photoshop) of digitised retinal images on the grading of diabetic retinopathy.
AIMS: To determine whether software processing of digitised retinal images using a "sharpen" filter improves the ability to grade diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: 150 macula centred retinal images were taken as 35 mm colour transparencies representing a spectrum of diabetic retinopathy, digitised, and graded in random order before and after the application of a sharpen filter (Adobe Photoshop). Digital enhancement of contrast and brightness was performed and a X2 digital zoom was utilised. The grades from the unenhanced and enhanced digitised images were compared with the same retinal fields viewed as slides. RESULTS: Overall agreement in retinopathy grade from the digitised images improved from 83.3% (125/150) to 94.0% (141/150) with sight threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) correctly identified in 95.5% (84/88) and 98.9% (87/88) of cases when using unenhanced and enhanced images respectively. In total, five images were overgraded and four undergraded from the enhanced images compared with 17 and eight images respectively when using unenhanced images. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the already good agreement in grading performance can be further improved by software manipulation or processing of digitised retinal images. (+info)
Vascular endothelial cells respond to spatial gradients in fluid shear stress by enhanced activation of transcription factors.
The vascular endothelium is exposed to a spectrum of fluid mechanical forces generated by blood flow; some of these, such as fluid shear stress, can directly modulate endothelial gene expression. Previous work by others and in our laboratory, using an in vitro uniform laminar shear stress model, has identified various shear stress response elements (SSREs) within the promoters of certain endothelial genes that regulate their expression by interacting with various transcription factors, including nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), early growth response-1 (Egr-1), and activator protein-1 (AP-1, composed of c-Jun/c-Jun and c-Jun/c-Fos protein dimers). In the current study, we have examined the topographical patterns of NF-kappaB, Egr-1, c-Jun, and c-Fos activation in a specially designed in vitro disturbed laminar shear stress model, which incorporates regions of significant spatial shear stress gradients similar to those found in atherosclerosis-prone arterial geometries in vivo (eg, arterial bifurcations, curvatures, ostial openings). Using newly developed quantitative image analysis techniques, we demonstrate that endothelial cells subjected to disturbed laminar shear stress exhibit increased levels of nuclear localized NF-kappaB, Egr-1, c-Jun, and c-Fos, compared with cells exposed to uniform laminar shear stress or maintained under static conditions. In addition, individual cells display a heterogeneity in responsiveness to disturbed flow, as measured by the amount of NF-kappaB, Egr-1, c-Jun, and c-Fos in their nuclei. This differential regulation of transcription factor expression by disturbed versus uniform laminar shear stress indicates that regional differences in blood flow patterns in vivo-in particular, the occurrence of spatial shear stress gradients-may represent important local modulators of endothelial gene expression at anatomic sites predisposed for atherosclerotic development. (+info)
Fully automated microvessel counting and hot spot selection by image processing of whole tumour sections in invasive breast cancer.
BACKGROUND: Manual counting of microvessels is subjective and may lead to unacceptable interobserver variability, which may explain conflicting results. AIMS: To develop and test an automated method for microvessel counting and objective selection of the hot spot, based on image processing of whole sections, and to compare this with manual selection of a hot spot and counting of microvessels. METHODS: Microvessels were stained by CD31 immunohistochemistry in 10 cases of invasive breast cancer. The number of microvessels was counted manually in a subjectively selected hot spot, and also in the same complete tumour sections by interactive and automated image processing methods. An algorithm identified the hot spots from microvessel maps of the whole tumour section. RESULTS: No significant difference in manual microvessel counts was found between two observers within the same hot spot, and counts were significantly correlated. However, when the hot spot was reselected, significantly different results were found between repeated counts by the same observer. Counting all microvessels manually within the entire tumour section resulted in significantly different hot spots than manual counts in selected hot spots by the same observer. Within the entire tumour section no significant differences were found between the hot spots of the manual and automated methods using an automated microscope. The hot spot was found using an eight connective path search algorithm, was located at or near the border of the tumour, and (depending on the size of the hot spot) did not always contain the field with the largest number of microvessels. CONCLUSIONS: The automated counting of microvessels is preferable to the manual method because of the reduction in measurement time when the complete tumour is scanned, the greater accuracy and objectivity of hot spot selection, and the possibility of visual inspection and relocation of each measurement field afterwards. (+info)
Abnormal cerebral structure in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy demonstrated with voxel-based analysis of MRI.
MRI scans of patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) are normal on visual assessment. Using an interactive anatomical segmentation technique and volume-of-interest measurements of MRI, we showed recently that patients with IGE had significantly larger cortical grey matter than control subjects. Further, 40% of individual patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), a syndrome of IGE in adolescence, had significant abnormalities of cerebral structure. In this study, we applied the automated and objective technique of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to the analysis of structural MRI from 20 patients with JME and 30 control subjects. The cortical grey matter of each individual JME patient and the group of JME patients was contrasted with that of the group of 30 normal subjects. The voxel-based SPM comparison between the group of JME patients and the control subjects showed an increase in cortical grey matter in the mesial frontal lobes of the patients. Analysis of individual patients revealed significant abnormalities of cortical grey matter in five out of 20 JME patients, four of whom had been shown to have widespread abnormalities using the previous volume of interest technique. These findings indicate a structural cerebral abnormality in JME, with involvement of mesiofrontal cortical structures. (+info)
Cranionavigator combining a high-speed drill and a navigation system for skull base surgery--technical note.
Drilling of the skull base bone without damaging the important inside structures and with the correct orientation is very difficult even with the help of the anatomical landmarks. Monitoring of the location and direction of the drill tip and indications of the removed part of the bone during the drilling procedure enhances safety and achieves less invasive neurosurgery. We have developed a novel cranionavigator by combining a high-speed drill with a neurosurgical navigation system. To reduce the positional error to less than 1.5 mm, the position sensor (magnetic field sensor) must be attached 5 cm from the metallic fan portion of the drill and the sensor kept at least 10 cm away from the operating microscope. Simulation studies with the cranionavigator using two dried skulls and three cadaver heads were performed before clinical application. Clinically, this surgical instrument was used in four patients with the skull base tumor. The cranionavigator helped to safely drill the skull base bone in a shorter time by dynamic and real-time display of the precise operating site and extent of bone drilling on the preoperative computed tomography scans or magnetic resonance images. The cranionavigator is a very helpful instrument for skull base surgery in the hands of neurosurgeons with extensive expertise and anatomical knowledge. (+info)
Angiogenesis in neuroblastoma: relationship to survival and other prognostic factors in a cohort of neuroblastoma patients.
PURPOSE: To study angiogenesis in neuroblastoma, using morphometric and computerized image analysis, and correlate the results with survival and other prognostic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-nine patients from the Spanish Cooperative Study for Neuroblastoma were studied. Tumoral angiogenesis was studied using an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase technique with an anti-CD34 antibody. Vascular parameters (VPs) were analyzed by a computerized system. Statistical analysis was also performed. RESULTS: Sixty-six samples had adequate tumoral tissue, and their tumoral vessels were counted. Endothelial cells were more prominent in pure neuroblastomas than in maturing and more mature tumors. VPs showed no statistical difference between the groups of patients as defined by the levels of the other prognostic factors in neuroblastoma: age, stage, histopathology, TRK-A, P-glycoprotein expression, or MYCN copy number. In patients who relapsed, tumors did not show statistically significant difference in VPs when compared with tumors from patients who did not relapse. There was also no difference in VPs in tumors from living patients when compared with tumors from deceased patients. Overall survival was 75%, and event-free survival was 55% at 50 months. CONCLUSION: VPs could be adequately determined by a computerized system in neuroblastoma; however, VPs were not predictive of survival for our patients. In our patients, neither disseminated nor local relapses were influenced by the angiogenic characteristics of the tumors. (+info)