Analysis of ancient DNA from a prehistoric Amerindian cemetery.
The Norris Farms No. 36 cemetery in central Illinois has been the subject of considerable archaeological and genetic research. Both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA have been examined in this 700-year-old population. DNA preservation at the site was good, with about 70% of the samples producing mtDNA results and approximately 15% yielding nuclear DNA data. All four of the major Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups were found, in addition to a fifth haplogroup. Sequences of the first hypervariable region of the mtDNA control region revealed a high level of diversity in the Norris Farms population and confirmed that the fifth haplogroup associates with Mongolian sequences and hence is probably authentic. Other than a possible reduction in the number of rare mtDNA lineages in many populations, it does not appear as if European contact significantly altered patterns of Amerindian mtDNA variation, despite the large decrease in population size that occurred. For nuclear DNA analysis, a novel method for DNA-based sex identification that uses nucleotide differences between the X and Y copies of the amelogenin gene was developed and applied successfully in approximately 20 individuals. Despite the well-known problems of poor DNA preservation and the ever-present possibility of contamination with modern DNA, genetic analysis of the Norris Farms No. 36 population demonstrates that ancient DNA can be a fruitful source of new insights into prehistoric populations. (+info)
Library residencies and internships as indicators of success: evidence from three programs.
This paper discusses post-master's degree internships in three very different organizations; the University of Illinois at Chicago, the National Library of Medicine, and the Library of Congress. It discusses the internships using several questions. Do the programs serve as a recruitment strategy? Do the programs develop key competencies needed by the participant or organization? Do the programs develop leaders and managers? Is acceptance into a program an indicator of future career success? A survey was mailed to 520 persons who had completed internships in one of the three programs. There was a 49.8% response rate. Responses to fifty-four questions were tabulated and analyzed for each program and for the total group. The results confirm the value of internships to the career of participants. (+info)
A sausage-associated outbreak of trichinosis in Illinois.
Twenty-three of 50 members of an extended Dutch-German family and their close friends who ate raw homemade summer sausage became ill with trichinosis; 12 patients were hospitalized for an average of 10 days each. The sausage had been made in three different batches according to an old family recipe. One of the batches made from USDA-inspected pork was found to contain Trichinella spiralis larvae by two Illinois State laboratories. The other two batches were negative. Seventeen of the 23 patients submitted information on medical expenses incurred and wages lost because of the outbreak. These costs totaled almost $20,000. There is need for a nationwide program for controlling trichinosis in swine. (+info)
Risk factors for infection with Toxoplasma gondii for residents and workers on swine farms in Illinois.
Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in workers and residents of swine farms were studied on 43 farms in Illinois. Blood samples were collected from 174 adults in 1993. The T. gondii seroprevalence was 31%. An interview was conducted with each participant, obtaining information on demographic characteristics and behaviors suspected to affect the risk of T. gondii infection. Factors associated with increased risk of T. gondii seropositivity were a higher number of seropositive cats trapped on the farm, male sex, rearing pigs on pasture, and gardening. Factors associated with a decreased risk were handling of pig feed and presence of cats inside the pig facilities. Thus, infection of cats with T. gondii increased the risk of human infection, and contact with soil was a likely mechanism for transmission. The increased risk of seropositivity in males is attributed to less attention paid to cleanliness in food preparation and eating. (+info)
A community hospital-based congestive heart failure program: impact on length of stay, admission and readmission rates, and cost.
OBJECTIVE: To do an analysis of patients with a primary diagnosis of congestive heart failure at discharge before (n = 407) and after (n = 347) the implementation of a comprehensive inpatient and outpatient congestive heart failure program consistent with the guidelines of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of the impact of the congestive heart failure program on length of stay, admission and readmission rates, and costs to both patient and provider. The program, which used a multidisciplinary team approach, included an intensive education program focusing on diet, compliance, and symptom recognition, as well as the use of outpatient infusions. It also incorporated aggressive pharmacologic treatment for patients with advanced congestive heart failure. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed significant decreases in length of stay, admission and readmission rates, and costs to the patient and provider (P < or = .05). The mean cost per admission decreased 17% ($1118), and a substantial 77% ($718,468) net reduction in nonreimbursed (lost) hospital revenue was noted. CONCLUSION: A multidisciplinary, comprehensive congestive heart failure program can improve patient care in a community-hospital setting while significantly reducing costs to both the patient and the institution. (+info)
Illinois Dental Anesthesia and Sedation Survey for 1996.
Dentists in the state of Illinois who possess a permit to administer sedation or general anesthesia were surveyed. A 71% response rate was achieved. Of the respondents, 86% held permits for deep sedation/general anesthesia and 14% held permits for parenteral conscious sedation. By practice specialty, 84% were oral and maxillofacial surgeons, 11% were general dentists, 5% were periodontists, and fewer than 1% were dental anesthesiologists. Advanced Cardiac Life Support training was possessed by 85% of the respondents. The most common anesthesia team configuration (82%) was a single operator-anesthetist and two additional assistants. Only 4% reported use of a nurse anesthetist, and 2% used an additional MD or DDS anesthesiologist. The vast majority (97%) of the practitioners do not intubate in the office on a routine basis. Supplemental oxygen was used by 81% of the respondents whenever intravenous agents were used. A total of 151,335 anesthetics were administered during the year. One mortality occurred in a patient with an undisclosed pre-existing cardiac condition. Four other events were reported that required medical intervention or hospital evaluation; however, no permanent injuries were reported. Other practice characteristics were described. (+info)
Maternal minimum-stay legislation: cost and policy implications.
OBJECTIVES: Recently, most state legislatures and Congress have passed laws mandating insurance coverage for a minimum period of inpatient care following delivery. This study analyzed the likely cost implications of one state's law. METHODS: Hospital discharge records for Illinois women who gave birth (n = 167,769) and infants born (n = 164,905) during a 12-month period predating the law were analyzed. RESULTS: As a percentage of total spending on birth-related admissions and readmissions, the net effect of the law ranges from a savings of 0.1% to a cost of 20.2%. CONCLUSIONS: There may be large cost implications to this legislation, even with savings from avoided re-admissions. (+info)
Behaviors that cause clinical instructors to question the clinical competence of physical therapist students.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical instructors (CIs) observe behavior to determine whether students have the skills assumed necessary for safe and effective delivery of physical therapy services. Studies have examined assumptions about necessary skills, but few studies have identified the types of student behaviors that are "red flags" for CIs. This study examined the student behaviors that negatively affect students' clinical performance, which can alert CIs to inadequate performance. SUBJECTS: Twenty-eight female and 5 male CIs discussed the performance of 23 female and 17 male students who were anonymous. METHODS: Using questionnaires and semistructured interviews that were taped and transcribed, CIs described demographics and incidents of unsafe and ineffective physical therapy. After reading the transcripts, investigators identified and classified the behaviors into categories and checked their classification for reliability (kappa=.60-.75). RESULTS: Behaviors in 3 categories emerged as red flags for CIs: 1 cognitive category--inadequate knowledge and psychomotor skill (43% of 134 behaviors)--and 2 noncognitive categories--unprofessional behavior (29.1%) and poor communication (27.6%). The CIs noticed and valued noncognitive behaviors but addressed cognitive behaviors more often with students. Students who did not receive feedback about their performance were unlikely to change their behavior. The CIs used cognitive behaviors often as reasons to recommend negative outcomes. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: Clinical instructors need to identify unacceptable cognitive and noncognitive behaviors as early as possible in clinical experiences. Evidence suggests that they should discuss their concerns with students and expect students to change. (+info)